№ 784 (2014)

УДК 94(477)“1917/1918”

Н.М. Барановська
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”,
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук


© Барановська Н.М, 2014

Проаналізовано основні засади військової політики гетьмана Павла Скоропад¬ського, роль і місце національних Збройних Сил у державотворчих процесах квітня – грудня 1918 p. Розглянуто державно-правове підгрунтя формування національної армії та її кадрового забезпечення.
Ключові слова: військова політика, гетьман, Павло Скоропадський, армія.

The article analyses the main principles of hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyj military policy, role and place of national Military Рowers in state creation processes of April - December, 1918 and considers foundations of national army formation and staffing.
Though, recently, in the Ukrainian historical science appeared many scientific works that consider questions of the state formation in period of hetmanate, but the problems of army formation are investigated insufficiently.
It is necessary to notice, that despite of complexity of mutual relations in the Ukrainian society and all external threats, during the period of Pavlo Skoropadskyj governing, the questions connected with development of an official military state policy gain an accurate outline. Creation of regular national army as guarantor of state sovereignty is first and foremost. The idea of Central rada about replacement of army by national policy has finally been rejected and realisation of program, concerning formation of the regular, professionally trained Armed forces has begun. The legislative base of military support which not only introduced legal framework for formation of the Ukrainian army and fleet, but also guaranteed their development because of the up-to-date military achievements of that time civilised world, has been developed. Considerable reorganisation of the Ukrainian army’s higher command institutions concerning as structural formation, as operative management has taken place. A set of professional educational institutions has been created for military personnel training. It testifies that P. Skoropadskyj was devoted to an idea of the Ukrainian statehood and was well aware of the role of an combat-ready constant army in question of protection of Ukraine from military aggression of other countries.
And with that, P.Skoropadskyj’s protective concept did not provide constant army involvement to police within the country, and officer military formations were used only for suppression of political protest actions and country disorders.
However, hetman didn’t managed to push the matter through after all, because of the activity of destructive forces and to create real powerful military force, during his short governing, because even the Serdjutska Guards division that consisted of representatives of substantial farmers and was considered as a support of hetmanate, has come over the side of the Directory.
Key words: military politics, hetman, Pavlo Skoropadskyj, army.

Література – 30

УДК 94:316.4.063.7(477.83/.86-11) “1914/1918”

І.Р. Берест
Львівський національний аграрний університет


© Берест І.Р., 2014

Проаналізовано стан розвитку джерельної бази історії профспілок та профспілкового руху до початку та в роки Першої світової війни, вказано на нові, досі не відомі документи з цієї тематики, окреслено перспективи наукового дослідження.
Ключові слова: профспілки, Східна Галичина, джерела, Перша світова війна.

Research topic of the trade union movement in Eastern Galicia before and during the First World War biennium is very interesting and the aim of this study is the demonstration of sources, which then form the basis of a monumental work. The main group of sources are materials that are encountered in the formation and activities of trade unions (trade union policy documents, representations of strike committees, leaders of trade union organizations). The peculiarity of these sources is that they reflect the spirit of the age and diversity of current, especially for workers and trade unions issues.
The importance of a multifaceted study of the history of the trade union movement in Ukraine is connected, first, with a relatively narrow range of processed sources. Secondly, the theme of the trade union movement is a versatile and multi-faceted and many of its aspects require deeper and more thorough study. Thirdly, studied topic provides rich material for scientific study of other key issues of history of Eastern Galicia, including: management in the province, economic and social development, the rise of Ukrainian national movement and so on. Fourth, in terms of building democratic institutions of independent Ukrainian state analysis and accumulation of historical experience in the area of development of trade-union movement have both especially scientific and the practical value applied.
The basis of the study was a source base set of published documents and records (including electronic media) that reflect the historical background and direct processes for the origin, formation and development of the trade union movement in Eastern Galicia before and during the First World War.
To understand the problem, first of all, we should distinguish the sources that have arisen in the formation and activities of trade union organizations - policy documents unions, their correspondence and information analysis, representations of strike committees, leaders of trade union organizations. An important group of historical sources are published laws and other national and regional regulations that define the legal framework of society, the functioning of trade unions and their socio-political and socio-economic priorities. Important role also belongs to the electoral law, including its evolution from the class and two-stage electoral system – to the common electoral law. In the separate group of sources it is possible to select the of that time press, primarily working and trade-union, the publication of which is significantly more active at the end of 60th – at the beginning of 70th of the XIX century.
At the turn of the ХІХ–ХХ centuries, in connection with radicalization of social life, appears specialized press. If earlier the problems of western Ukrainian workers lighted up next to questions importance questions for farmers (mainly) middle class and other segments of the population of that time, the emergence of such publications, like “Pratcia” or “Robitnykh” showed the increasing influence of the workers in the social and political processes.
Separate groups of sources are more or less informative saturated, but together they provide the necessary factual basis for a holistic, objective study of the genesis of the trade union movement in Eastern Galicia in the ХІХ- early ХХ centuries.
In general, the study of the history of the trade union movement in Eastern Galicia before and during the First World War biennium is extremely important and necessary in terms of studying the history of trade unions in the Ukrainian lands, which are not always adequately and properly covered and, in fact, is still largely unknown. In this context particular importance is the study of assumptions, features and processes that affect the origin, formation and development of the trade union movement in Western Ukraine during the Austrian government.
Key words: trade unions, Eastern Galicia, sources, First World War.

Література – 9

УДК: 335.48: 37 (477)

І.В. Буковський
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”,
Інститут гуманітарних та соціальних наук


© Буковський І.В., 2014

Розглянуто питання організації виховної роботи з особовим складом в умовах переходу до контрактної форми комплектування Збройних сил України. Останні події в державі підтвердили стару істину про те, що від морального стану особового складу, його патріотизму і готовності жертвувати собою заради Батьківщини в вирішальному сенсі залежить міць армії. У зв’язку з цим надзвичайно важливою постає проблема всебічного вдосконалення виховної роботи, загалом, і військово-патріотичного виховання, зокрема.
Ключові слова: виховна робота, армія, військово-патріотичне виховання.

In this article, the author examines the organization of educational work with staff in the transition to the contract form of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
The topic of research at present is extremely relevant, because over the past few months in the public eye in Ukraine began its armed forces. Their state is actively discussing by media, representatives of political forces, political analysts, NGOs, civil society representatives. The reasons for this are several. And most of them - the aggression of Russia against Ukraine and its annexation of the Crimea. Suddenly everyone interested in the problem of combat capability of the army and navy, their ability to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity. Never, since Ukraine’s independence so sharply was not on the issue of preserving the sovereignty of Ukraine.
Amid threats facing it became apparent to all problems and difficulties which are in the Armed Forces. It became apparent crisis in the military, where it was unable to protect our territory.
Recent developments in the country have confirmed the old truth that the morale of troops, his patriotism and willingness to sacrifice themselves for the sake of the homeland depends crucially on the power of the army. Due to this crucial problem arises comprehensive improvement of educational work in general and military-patriotic education in particular.
Raising troops in any country depends on the economic, political, ethnic, religious, and many other factors. Radical changes are taking place now in the Armed Forces, for the establishment of adequate in these processes of social and educational conditions and determine the need for optimal development of education, the implementation of current ideas and technologies, the transition from an authoritarian to a person-oriented differentiated system of education.
Key words: educator work, army, military-patriotic education.

Література – 12

УДК 94(477.8) ”1921/1939”

Ю.М. Візітів
Рівненський інститут слов’янознавства
Київського славістичного університету


© Візітів Ю.М., 2014

Розкриті на підставі історичних джерел, маловідомі сторінки діяльності волинської пластової родини Гороховичів у 20-30-ті роки ХХ ст. Антоніна, Іван, Василь і Тихон Гороховичі спрямовували свої сили на підвищення загальноосвітнього та культурного рівня місцевої молоді через популярні форми пластової роботи, а також співпрацю з іншими просвітніми товариствами.
Ключові слова: історичні джерела, Волинь, просвітні товариства.

The article has analysed the activity one of the famous Plast-family of Volyn in 20s-30s of XX century, based on the source study analysis of the archive documents, memoirs, information published in medias, Ukrainian and foreign historiography. The Ukrainian intelligentsia worked selflessly on the educational ground. The life and activity of many famous Volyn families are discussed, for example Gorokhovich family – Antonina, Ivan, Tyhon, Vasyl, is closely connected with the activity of Plast. Owing to their activity in Plast, they managed to develop and get public acknowledgement.
Being the humanistic and democratic by nature under the conditions of the extremely Polish-oriented social order, Plast was the weighty components of the retention of the national consciousness of Ukrainian people, merged into the main areas of the public life – education, culture, upbringing of the young generation. Plast occupies the first place judging by its social importance and activity results. Plast was the developed system of cultural and educational methods promoting the social, national, patriotic, aesthetic upbringing of the Ukrainian nation in Volyn region. During the above years, Plast selected the only method to assure the development of the education and self upbringing of the Ukrainian nation. Therefore, the purposeful anabolic policy of Poland was opposed by the national cultural and educational work of the Plast, based on the high moral substances and moral duties of their members, joined by the common key ideas of Ukrainian state system the common purposes.
Key words: historical sources, Volyn, societies ofinlightening.

Література – 10

УДК: 94(477) “1925/1939”

В.С. Виздрик
Академія сухопутних військ ім. П. Сагайдачного


© Виздрик В.С., 2014

Розглянуто діяльність політики УНДО в аграрній сфері. Проаналізовано діяль¬ність партії у пропаганді ідей господарської самостійності та згуртованості українського селянства в протистоянні асиміляційній політиці Польської держави парламентським шляхом.
Ключові слова: Західна Україна, аграрна сфера, політичні партії, селянство, Польська держава.

Consider activity of the UNDO policy in agriculture. The parliamentary activity of the UNDA played an important role in promoting the ideas of economic independence and unity of the Ukrainian peasants in opposition to the policy of Ukrainians assimilation.
The article deals with the activities of the Ukrainian National Democratic Association (UNDA) in agricultural policy. In the interwar period, highly sophisticated national and socio-economic relations have developed in Western Ukraine and they were accompanied by constant political struggle of the population with the Polish authorities. Against this general background of sharp contradictions in the conditions of colonial rule, the Ukrainian political parties were forced to develop their own policy in the agrarian question, and fight for their implementation. In the political spectrum in Western Ukraine the UNDA has played a significant role, as for the size and impact on the Ukrainian people. It became a leading Western party in the second part of the 20’s and 30’s of the twentieth century, and the Association represented Ukraine in the international arena. The experience of the UNDA is very important in the context of modern state-building process in Ukraine, as the forms and methods of the parliamentary activity that were promoted by the National Democrats are still actual.
Being on the legal situation the Association expressed the national interests of the Ukrainian people and defended their right to self-organized life. The party initiated the consolidation of the national forces and made decisive impact on the socio-political, cultural, educational and economic life of the region. The experience of the National Democrats in the Sejm and Senate of Poland proved that it was impossible at that time to solve the agrarian problem in Western Ukraine by the parliament. The failure of understanding between the National Democrats and the Polish government has caused the frustration among the Ukrainian public in legitimate – parliamentary methods of struggle. It was the push to the decline of all Ukrainian legal parties regardless of their relationship to the policy of “normalization”. However, the parliamentary activity of the UNDA played an important role in promoting the ideas of economic independence and unity of the Ukrainian peasants in opposition to the policy of Ukrainians assimilation, and it preserved the traditions of multiparty democracy in the our society.
Key words: Western Ukraine, agrarian sphere, political parties, peasantry, Polish state.

Література – 19

УДК 94(477)”1932-1947”

В.М. Гнатюк
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”,
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук


© Гнатюк В.М., 2014

Обґрунтовано актуальну потребу якнайшвидшої організації тотального, в межах кожного населеного пункту колишньої підрадянської України, записування свідчень про Голодомори 1932–1933 рр. та 1946–1947 рр. Терміновість цього завдання зумовлена дуже похилим віком потенційних інформаторів, яким нині уже виповнилося 80–90 років, а його актуальність – потребою максимально повної фіксації документів усної історії із зазначеної тематики, а також розгортанням досліджень регіональних особливостей Голодомору в різних місцевостях та картографуванням явищ Голодоморів, що його вже розпочали українські науковці.
Швидко зібрати фактичний матеріал в усіх населених пунктах України, що зазнали страхіть Голодоморів, а також увести його в науковий обіг за допомогою архівації та видання відповідних збірників можна лише із застосування системних підходів. Ключовим моментом тут повинно бути створення Всеукраїнського координаційного комітету, який мав би зорганізувати всю роботу, видати потрібні науково-методичні матеріали для записувачів, налагодити зв’язок з органами районної влади усіх регіонів колишньої підрадянської України. Основним контингентом записувачів, найбільше підготовлених до цієї роботи, автор вважає педагогів місцевих шкіл, а також студентів і викладачів ВНЗ, яких Всеукраїнський координаційний комітет разом із відповідними структурами райдержадміністрацій мав би відповідно зорганізувати. Зібраний польовий матеріал слід, на думку автора, архівувати, а також формувати з нього збірники спогадів про Голодомори і, за можливості, видавати їх в електронному чи паперовому вигляді, що дозволить швидко ввести їх у науковий обіг і використовувати в національно-патріотичному вихованні населення. Найоптимальніше структура таких збірників мала б складатися з трьох основних розділів: власне усних свідчень, копій архівних документів, що стосуються відповідних районів, аналітичної статті, яка виявила б специфіку розгортання процесів Голодомору в тому чи іншому районі в контексті всеукраїнських подій. Також, за можливості, до збірників можна долучати списки жертв Голодомору в кожному населеному пункті району, деякі історичні відомості про нього, рецепти сурогатного їдла, що його споживали місцеві мешканці в голодні роки тощо.
Особливу увагу слід приділяти спогадам про Голодомор 1946–1947 рр., яких записано сьогодні незрівнянно менше, ніж спогадів про Голодомор 1932–1933 рр. Перші ж мають надзвичайно важливе консолідаційне значення для української нації, оскільки мільйони людей з Центральної та Східної України було врятовано завдяки допомозі мешканців Західної України.
Слід розгортати записування спогадів про Голодомори і від жителів Західної України, особливо в колишніх прикордонних областях із підрадянськими територіями, що розкривало б нові аспекти трагедії всієї нації.
Ключові слова: Голодомори 1932–1933 рр. та 1946–1947 рр.; Всеукраїнський координаційний комітет, порайонний принцип, районні держадміністрації, тотальна фіксація спогадів, збірники свідчень.
In the article the problem of the systematic approach to the total fixation and publication of the testimonies about holodomors 1932-1933 and 1946-1947 years is considered. The author proposes to create a Centre of coordination, that could to manage all the work. The centre could organize the groups of investigators of schoolteachers in all the regions, consult them, accumulate and publish all collected testimonies. The most preferable form of publishing are the regional books of such a structure: testimonies, archive documents and a large analytic article. The lists of the victims of Holodomor could be added hear as well as the names and the receipts of the courses, made by starving peasants at that time, the examples of the local folklore of the issue and cet.
The especial significance have the testimonies about the Holodomor of 1946-1947 years because of their consolidation role for the Ukrainian society. At that time a lot of Ukrainians from East Ukraine saved their lives bying and changing bread in the West Ukraine.
The collecting of the testimonies organized in such a way can help to make all the work very quickly during several months and then during 2-3 years to publish regional books where all the facts of starvation in Ukraine will be reflected. This mode of collecting testemonies was used by auther during preparing for publishing the book «Голодовка. Переяславщина в 1932-1933 роках. Свідчення» (Київ; Нью-Йорк, 2000).
Key words: holodomors 1932-1933 and 1946-1947 years, a Centre of coordination, total fixation, collecting testimonies.

Література – 8

УДК 904: 623.444.2 (477)“13/15”

Б.В. Гринчишин
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”,
Інститут гуманітарних та соціальних наук


© Гринчишин Б.В., 2014

Розглянуто методи ведення бою із застосуванням різних видів клинкової зброї, насамперед меча, кинджала. Проаналізовано писемні середньовічні джерела, присвячені фехтуванню, що переконують про існування ще в добу середньовіччя певних технік застосування мечів та інших видів клинкової зброї.
Ключові слова: клинкова зброя, меч, кинджал, фехтування.

In this article we examined the methods of fighting with different types of bladed weapons, especially the swords, daggers. We pay a special attention to the analysis of medieval manuscripts dedicated which provide reasoned evidence to confirm the existence of some techniques of using swords and other bladed weapons in the Middle Ages. They debunk the established notion that the Middle Ages technique of warfare was like a “primitive fight.” These manuscripts usually are very well illustrated. Such format caused by because of illiteracy of theirs readers and interest in the visual presentation, which promotes better assimilation of the latest techniques of combat. Attention is focused on two main schools of fencing: German, represented by such masters as Johannes Liechtenauer, Hanko Doebringer and Hans Talhoffer and Italian (Fiore dei Liberi, Filippo Wadi).
We analyze the development of methods of warfare at the turn of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It should be noted - the art of fencing experienced a dynamic change during this period. That was primarily associated with improvement of old and inventing new types of weapons as well as soldier`s protective gear.
The most important for us is the information that the latest design of the methods of warfare, widespread in medieval Europe, was reflected in military conflicts of the Principality of Galicia–Volhynia by engaging mercenary troops or personal practice princes.
Key words: bladed weapons, sword, dagger, fencing

Література – 9

УДК 94 (477)

Л.Є. Дещинський
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”,
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук


© Дещинський Л.Є., 2014

Розглянуто поневолення української держави та припинення її репрезентації на міжнародній арені у першій половині XX ст.
Ключові слова: українська державність, Радянський Союз, дипломатія, міжнародна арена.

The condition and tendencies of development of the basic of Ukraine on international changes in 1919–1941 is analyzed.
Key words: the Ukrainian state system, Soviet Union, diplomacy, international scene.

Література – 18

УДК 902(4/9)

В.К. Добрянський
Всеукраїнська спілка краєзнавців


© Добрянський В.К., 2014

Статтю присвячено археологічному обстеженню городища XIV ст. в с. Біла Чорт¬ківського району Тернопільської області, що має ознаки пізньосередньовічного замку.
Ключові слова: городище, замок, дитинець, рів, вал, куртина, кераміка.

Archaeological survey settlement XIV century in village Bila near the Chertkov city of Ternopil region
This article is about the archaeological survey settlement XIV. With. White Chortkiv district, Ternopil region, which has features of late Middle-Ages the castle.
Key words: fort, castle, citadel, ditch, wall, curtain, pottery.

Література – 11

УДК 94(477)”1917”

Р.Д. Зінкевич
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”,
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук


© Зінкевич Р.Д., 2014

Досліджено початки формування армії УНР та створення вищих державних військових органів восени 1917 р. Показано помилки Центральної Ради у військовому будівництві, які згодом призвели до низької боєздатності Армії УНР.
Ключові слова: армія, Центральна Рада, Росія, більшовики, військове будівництво.

The article is about the study of the beginnings of the Ukrainian People’s Army formation and the creation of the senior state military authorities in autumn 1917. The research shows the mistakes of the Central Council regarding the military construction, that further led to the low Ukrainian National Army fighting efficiency.
There were major political changes in Russia in autumn 1917. The Bolsheviks came to power after the armed revolution. This change of the political situation had influence on the course of events in Ukraine. During this period the Central Council finished the forming of the Ukrainian national military organizational structures and the creation of the UNA bases. A characteristic feature of that period was a rapid evolution from the spontaneous methods to the emersion of the national state military policy elements, that ultimately led to the appearance of the UNR Armed Forces main body. Against anti-militarist policy of the Central Council, aimed at the elimination of the regular army and replacing it to a people’s militia, all events led to the creation of the Armed Forces as one of the state attributes. In the end of November 1917 the Ukrainian military movement reached the stage of organizational appearance, despite all mistakes in the military construction. There were senior military authorities: General Military Secretariat, that served as the National Ministry of Defence, General Staff, National Military Council and military councils on different levels of the fields. Two military districts Kyiv and Odessa also were subordinated to the Ukrainian authority. In addition, the creation of the Ukrainian Front and the appointment by the Military Secretariat for it relevant chiefs completed the process of formal submission of all parts of the former Russian army on the Ukrainian territory to the UNR government. Ukrainian military schools started training of national military personnel.
Therefore, we can state that in November 1917 there was established the UNR Army. It consisted of differently typed formations. According to the ways or methods of organization they could be divided into several types: arbitrary, those that appeared spontaneously; revolutionary, whose creation often started from spontaneous revolutionary movement, and then were recognised as the official authority; planned structures - ukrainianized and newly created units, that had to become the main body of a regular national army. However, the fighting efficiency of the UNA still remained low.
Key words: army, Central Advice, Russia, bolshevists, military building.

Література – 23

УДК 904

Володимир Захар’єв
Хмельницький обласний краєзнавчий музей


© Захар’єв В., 2014

Йдеться про один з епізодів діяльності Народного архітектора України І. Могитича, а саме: перший етап робіт над реконструкцією давньоруської дерев’яної церкви ХІІ–ХІІІ ст., який виявив автор 1994 р. в урочищі Батарея поблизу с. Сокілець Дунаєвецького району Хмельницької області.
Ключові слова: Іван Могитич, дерев’яна церква, ХІІ–ХІІІ ст., ур. Батарея, Сокілець, реконструкція.

The article refers to an episode of activity of the People’s architect I.Mohytycha Ukraine, namely: the first stage of works on the reconstruction of Old Russian wooden church in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries., Which was found by the author in 1994 in the tract near Battery s. Sokilets Dunayevets’kyi Khmelnitsky region region.
Key words: John Mohytych wooden church, the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Ur. Battery, Sokilets, reconstruction.

Література – 17

УДК 94(477)“16”

М.Є. Каша
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”,
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук


© Каша М.Є., 2014

Розглянуто проблеми вивчення, збереження та використання замків та фортець Західної Волині в контексті історичних змін та нових пам’ятко-охоронних реалій міжвоєнного періоду. Висвітлено основні моменти функціонування цих об’єктів та їх місце у системі пам’яток краю.
Ключові слова: замки, фортеці, Західна Волинь, пам’ятко-охоронна робота, міжвоєнний період.

This paper addresses the problem of the study, preservation and use of the castles and fortresses of Western Volhynia in the context of historical changes and new sights enforcement realities of the interwar period. The basic operation points of these objects and their place in the land of monuments.
The subject of the article is the history of castle in the context of military events on the territory of Western Volynian region, which took place at the end of XV- in XVII centuries. Main stages of castle functioning and its place in the system of country defence are highlighted.
Key words: castle, fortresses, Western Volyn, пам'ятко-охоронна work, intermilitary period.

Література – 32

УДК 623.415

М.В. Коваль
Державна прикордонна служба України


© Коваль М.В., 2014

Досліджено проблеми розвитку довготривалої фортифікації на теренах України в контексті історії світової фортифікації.
Ключові слова: Україна, довготривала фортифікація, укріплене поселення, оборонна споруда, городище, вал, рів, башта, бійниця, брама, укріплений район.

The article concerns the problem of development of long-term fortification within the territory of Ukraine in the context of history of world fortification. The author defines the notion of fortification constructions as artificial construction built in order to be protected from enemies. Besides the author stresses upon the historical aspect of fortification constructions and it has been pointed that people started building the fortification constructions at the definite stage of their development – in the period of transferring to camp and class society. From that time the phenomenon of war became a permanent companion of human communities and open settlements of primitive era gradually turned into fortified settlements of tribal communities – ancient sites. In Ukraine such fortification construction appeared in the ІV-ІІІth millennia B.C. They were enomous fortified settlements reaching
300 – 400 ha.
Later forms of long-term fortification gradually changed that depended on the development of offensive armament – first of all artillery. Generally in the history four periods are distinguished. They are the following:
From ancient times to appearance of firearms (to the middle of XIVth century);
From XIVth century to implementation of rifled artillery (to the middle of XIXth century);
For the middle of XIXth century to 1885, invention of high-explosive bomb;
From the period of high-explosive bomb until today.
According to these periods of history of world fortification the author draws attention towards constructions of long-term fortification built on the territory of Ukraine: in the times of Trypillian culture and following archeological cultures; Scythian settlements; watch and defence system on south frontiers of Kyiv Rus; castles of the Polish Kingdom; defence sector, outpost, fortresses of the Russian empire; fortified lines and fortified sections of the Soviet period etc.
The Slavic people followed the traditions of their predecessors and they organized defence and protection by means of ramparts that were aimed at performing of functions of watchtowers. Besides the settlements were fortified. The examples of these fortified settlements can be seen on the territory of Ukraine. Currently they are estimated to 1500 places. The size of fortification depended on the size of the settlements: small villages had one rampart and some ditches, but town were protected with fortification from two or three ramparts.
The Galicia-Volyn principality developed new type of fortification for ptotection of the country’s borders: towns-fortresses. The Prince Danylo Halytskyi built more than 70 fortresses that frightened The Mongolian and Tatar troops. Later separate outposts were built. The system was effective for protection from unexpected invasions.
The further development of fortification constructions concerned pentagonal building – bastion. The number of bastions increased and they comprised fortification line. The fortification line approach was rather efficient and it ensured safety for the inhabitants of the country. But the development of weapon resulted in necessity of improvement of fortification construction as well.
The demolition bomb could destroy any bastion and new type of fortification appeared – fortified groups. They concerned long-term stronghold and they ensured reliable protection from new weapons. The Ukrainians military engineers followed German constructors and organized they fortification system by the example of Feste or Panzergruppen fortified groups.
The period between two world wars was very productive for fortification construction. Military engineers developed many approaches to fortification systems. In Ukraine scientists distinguish three stages of building fortification construction in this period. At the first stage (1929-1936) principal fortification constructions were built: Kyiv, Korosten, Letychiv, Novohrad-Volynskyi, Mohyliv-Yampil, Pybnytskyi, and Typaspol fortififed areas. At the second stage (1938-1939) Ostropil, Didovichi, Shepetivka-Starokostiantyniv, Proskuriv and Kamianets-Podilskyi fortification area were built. An the third (1940-1941) one touches upon construction of Kovel, Volodymyr-Volynskyi, Strimulovskyi, Rava-Ruska, Peremyshl and Chernivtsi fortification area.
In conclusion, the author asserts that the problem of fortification preparation has been existing during the whole history of human civilization. Ukraine was not an exception, moreover, long-term fortification was a permanent companion of people’s life because of geopolitical reasons.
Key words: Ukraine, long-term fortification, fortified settlement, defence construction, site, rampant, gun slot, gate, fortified section.

Література – 49

УДК 930.1:94(477)

С.В. Конюхов
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”


© Конюхов С. В., 2014

Проаналізовано відомі праці сучасних істориків та розглянуто позиції авторів щодо опору українців окупаційним режимам у роки Другої світової війни. Відзначені основні проблеми, що впливали на трактування національно-визвольного опору україн¬ців у роки Другої світової війни. Окреслено напрямки національно-визвольного опору.
Ключові слова: історіографія, національно-визвольний опір, Організація українських націоналістів.

The suggested scientific survey proves that even today among scholars and historians there is certain disagreement in evaluating Ukrainian resistance to the occupation regime during the Second World War. This conclusion is based on the analyzed works by modern historians.
In Soviet times, historians actively covering events of war drew attention to the tactics and strategy, to the heroism of the people who survived the war, to the crimes of German occupants (nazis). The historiography of the period of the soviet times is full of studies of the role and experience of the communist party in the struggle for the victory over the enemy. The participation of OUN and UPA in the operations is not meant in this literature at all. At the same time, the Soviet Army’s errors were ignored, the repressive and punitive system of Soviet authorities was not taken into consideration, the participation in Second World War of UPA and OUN in the Second World War was considered only in negative terms.
Among the important peculiarities of the current historiography there is promotion and democratization of researching the events of the Second World War, diversification and expansion of their subjects. Thorough disclosure of the causes and peculiarities of resistance of Ukrainians to the occupation regime is one of the main directions of modern historical research.
In modern historiography, this problem is of great importance. The works of K. Kondratyuk, O. Sukhyi, V. Stetskevych, I. Patyrlyak, V. Vyatrovych, W. Kosyk, W. Shaykan, M. Lytvyn, M. Koval and other historians formed historiographical tradition of researching this important and relevant scientific and political problem. The researchers have put in scientific use a considerable amount of little-known and unknown documents from national and foreign archives.. Some scientists exploring areas of national liberation resistance in the years of 1939-1945 are focusing on the fight of UPA against the Soviet totalitarian regime. Other researchers are focused on Ukrainian-Polish confrontation, the third ones are observing the opposition to the German occupation regime.
In all the analyzed works the opinion is stated that the Ukrainian nationalist resistance during the Second World War was very powerful. Its task of it was to defend the interests of its nation.
It is encouraging that in the analyzed Polish history works the facts are presented objectively and unbiased. The authors try to present a clear and accessible the material on the events of the past in a clear and accessible way, and in this context they offer the information about the Ukrainian nationalist resistance during the Second World War.
Key words: historiography, nationalist resistance, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists.

Література – 44

УДК 904:666.1(477.82-21Берестечко)

Ю.М. Курдина
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”,
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук


© Курдина Ю.М., 2014

Описано гутництво як складний багатоаспектний процес. Розглядаються такі його складові, як: конструкція склоробних печей, організація праці у гутах, процес виготовлення скляних виробів та їх асортимент. Увага приділяється знахідкам з поля битви під Берестечком та їх значенню для вивчення асортименту продукції гут.

The article deals with Hutta as a complex multidimensional process. Here it considers its components such as: design of glass furnaces, the organization of work in Hutta, the process of manufacturing glass products and their range. The attention is paid to the findings from the battlefield near Berestechko and their value for the study of products Hutta range. Keywords: Hutta production, reconstruction, glass-furnace, glassware, Berestechko.

Література – 25

УДК 94/477“1921”

А.Ф. Куций
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”,
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук


© Куций А.Ф., 2014

Показано роль полковника Р. Сушка як керівника 2 групи Київської дивізії на тлі кривавих подій завершального етапу визвольної боротьби українського народу під час ІІ Зимового походу військ УНР. На основі спогадів безпосередніх учасників походу, в тому числі Романа Сушка, проаналізовано і показано підготовку, хід та наслідки фінального етапу боротьби за українське державотворення.
Ключові слова: Другий зимовий похід, Партизансько-повстанський Штаб, Армія УНР, дивізія, полковник Р. Сушко.

The article deals with the events of the final stage of the national liberation struggle 1921rr 1917, the participation of Sich Riflemen, Colonel Roman Sushko in the fighting against the Bolsheviks Volyn group at the Second Winter campaign in 1921. Against the background of contemporary events of the Ukrainian statehood, The role of the former internment camp in Polish Ukrainian military leaders who continued the struggle against the Bolshevik power in Ukraine, forming three groups of military forces. Nowadays, the problem of the November 1921 raid remains relevant because Ukrainian retained in the memory 92 - year bloody pages of these events, and especially the role of the person looks and its influence on the formation of combat capability of one of the groups Winter campaign.
In this study show the formation of the governing officials as including rebel - partisan staff, its location and activities in carrying out the uprising against the Bolsheviks. The role of Colonel R.Sushka as head of the Kyiv Division 2 groups on the background of the bloody events of the Second Winter campaign UNR troops. Based on the memoirs of direct participants in the campaign, including Roman Sushko, analyzed the fighting Volyn group defined route and causes of the tragic consequences of the final phase of the struggle for the Ukrainian state.
Key words: second winter campaign, guerrilla-rebel headquarters, Army UNR, Division, colonel R. Sushko.

Література – 32

УДК 94 (477.85/87)+355.1

Я.Б. Лисейко
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”,
Інститут гуманітарних та соціальних наук

© Лисейко Я.Б., 2014

Досліджено участь населення Сяноцької землі у мобілізації війська на початковому етапі Польсько-шведської війни 1655–1660 рр. Загалом до кінця 1655 р. було мобілізовано близько 115 вершників, 17 піхотинців та окрему хорогву ланових жовнірів, які разом склали основу територіальної самооборони краю. Попри пасивну участь сяноцької шляхти у військових діях поза межами Сяноцької землі, вона поставила пріоритет в обороні власного краю, адже не проігнорувала жодної можливості найняти військо для забезпечення оборони своїх домівок.
Ключові слова: Сяноцька земля, Польсько-шведська війна, вершники, піхотинці, шляхта.

The Rus province nobility responded to oncoming war with the Swedes by gathering on April 28, 1655 in Vyshnya at the Sejmyk, where was decided to convene campaign of planned soldier. Then there was defined the type of troops and the prosess of hiring planned soldier – infantry was mobilized and comprised one soldier out of ten fields, and later one out of every 15 fields.
The development of military and political events led to the gathering of Russ nobility at the following congress of Vyshensky Sejm, held on August 13, 1655. In response to the invasion of Swedes to Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth the nobility declared Pospolytyy movement which took place on August 24 near Vyshnya.
Sanok gentry started to reorganize sefety means on their own land. On the terririry of Sanok land the military troop was formed which consisted of about 115 horsemen and 17 infantrymen (hired by Sanok towns) under the command of Sanok nobleman Janusz Dedenskoho.
As it turned out, Sanok people have never been into a military campaign against the enemy held beyond Syanok land. A month later, in September 27th, 1655 a meeting at Sanok Sejmyk was arranged where Sanok nobles decided all Pospolytyy movement to stay directly on Sanok land, explaining that decision was made because of excessive risk of robber attacks from the Hungarian border. Sanok gentry authorized its decision by the fact that third notification, sent out by King on July 30, they received permission to stay on Sanok land in order to ensure proper defense of the land.
Nevertheless Sanok nobility was obliged to continue the mobilization of some military troops which should have set out to replace the main military camp during the Pospolytyy movement. Syanok people requested Zygmunt Fredra, the Sanok Castellan, to provide his own dragoons of 100 soldiers for state needs.
Overall response of Sanok people to the military and political events of that time appeared in manifesting and delaying the mobilization of troops, unwillingness to act in the campaign in person and participate in military actions outside the Sanok lands. One of the main reasons, mentioned by historians, was caused by the loss of morale within the Polish troops in 1655, the common frustration, demoralization from prolonged warfare with the Cossacks that lasted permanently since 1648. Such spirits could not affect the general feelings of the Sanok nobility that despite its regional patriotism, self-awareness of being the “Ukrainian knighthood” remained citizens of the Commonwealth. Another important reason was the fact that nobility did not want to leave their homes because they were afraid of anti-noble appearances, increase of attacks against rebels and bandits from Beskid. From a financial point of view, after years of war the nobility did not processed sufficient resources to hire expensive cavalry, and therefore they addressed for employment of infantry, and personally had to come to arms during the Pospolytyy movement.
Although passive participation of Sanok nobility in the military operations outside the Sanok lands, it should be noted that nobility has put a priority in the defense of their own land at that hard time. By the end of 1655 there was generated a sufficient army to defend Sanok land against the enemy. When Pospolytyy movement was declared there were mobilized about 115 riders out of Sanok nobility and 17 infantrymen from Sanok towns that formed the basis of territorial self-defense. In addition, there was mobilized a separate military troop during the hiring of planned soldiers, which could account to 80-100 people. Also there were involved another 50 infantrymen to fight against robbers provided to defend the land by mayor of Sanok. This list included an additional 100 dragoons of Sanok castellan, who had to replaced Sanok nobility during the Pospolytyy movement. This is the only one who possibly took part in military actions outside the Sanok lands in 1655.
Key words: Sanok land, war with the Swedes, riders, infantrymen, gentry.

Література – 19

УДК: 94(477)”1914/1915”

О. Я. Мазур1, І.В. Баран2
1 Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
2 Львівський національний аграрний університет


© Мазур О. Я., Баран І. В., 2014

Розглянуто значення українських земель для країн-учасниць Першої світової війни. Проаналізовано плани та цілі кожної з держав, які входили до складу різних воюючих блоків, відносно загарбання українських земель.
Ключові слова: українські землі, Перша світова війна, Російська імперія, Австро-Угорщина, Німеччина, плани воюючих сторін.

The Entente and Triple Alliance – the two military-political alliances which had the relation to the beginning of the First World War, planned to lead the would-be war with the aim of enlarging their economical and political influences and for new outlet while redividing of the previously had already divided world. In this war Ukraine, as the largest European country of those without its own government, and having numerous labor and material resources and very convenient geographical location – had become a target of the comparative rival countries. Ukraine had become a center of a particular international attention. The matter of “Ukrainian question” which appeared in those days international politics could be explained by the absence of any kind of the independent state, territorial division of Ukraine, unsatisfied material, national and cultural conditions of Ukrainian people. The “Ukrainian question” became one of the most important reasons of European destabilization of the international relations in Europe, which in its own way provoked two military-political alliances to the conflict.
The Russian Empire, from one side and Germany and the Austria-Hungary from the other one treated the question of the conquest of the Ukrainian lands as one with the most important priority. Besides, while eastern part of Ukraine, so called –Naddniprianska Ukraine - stayed a part of the Russian Empire, the last one wanted to conquer western Ukraine. On the other hand, as Austria-Hungary ruling western Ukrainian lands, claimed its rights to eastern Ukraine.
Having started the war, the Russian Empire planned to conquer lands of Eastern Galicia, Northern Bukovina and Transcarpatia. It would let them solve two tasks: at first – to broaden the border of the Russian Empire and, at the same time, weaken or even destroy their western opponent; at second – to completely squelch the organising centres of Ukrainian liberation movements in Galicia, which not occasionally was called “Ukrainian Piemont”. The burglarious character of its intentions, Russian propaganda managed to hide by the will to unite the all Russian lands, of which, of course, Ukrainian lands were a part of.
During the war, the Austria-Hungary Empire, aimed to strengthen their positions in Western Ukraine and unite to its lands the other inhabited by Ukrainians territories, in particular, Volyn and Podillia. It would let them enhance their influence on Slavic nations of the Empire (Poles, Czechs, Slovaks), and tend to be the most influential country in the Slavic world.
The German Empire struggled for the expanding of its lands by conquering eastern and southern Ukraine – the most economically developed Ukrainian regions. Among German politicians the question of Ukraine was thought as essential, needed to defeat the Russian Empire. The German authority paid much attention to military actions held on Ukrainian lands, finding it as one of the most important scenes of the World War.
Germans didn’t exclude the creation of formally separate Ukrainian state formed on the reclaimed from the Russian Empire lands.
Key words: Ukrainian lands, the First World War, the Russian Empire, Germany, Austria-Hungary, belligerent plans.

Література – 18

УДК 94(477.8)(092),,18/19’’

В.М. Мельник
Львівський національний медичний університет імені Данила Галицького


© Мельник В.М., 2014

На основі широкої джерельної бази у статті розглядається діяльність Теофіла Окуневського як депутата Державної ради, розвиток українського парламентаризму у Відні та участь Т. Окуневського в ньому.
Ключові слова: Теофіл Окуневський, депутат, Державна рада, український парламентаризм, Відень.

This dissertation is a complex research of historical, ideological, and socio-political processes and phenomena, which directly influenced the formation of political beliefs of dr. T. Okunevskyi. On the basis of analysis of archive, published sources and specialized literature the author tries to clarify the historical circumstances of T. Okunevskyi’s worldview formation, to characterize his role in Ukrainian parliamentarism development. He was also a member and founder of Russian and Ukrainian Radical Party and organizer of radical movement on Pokuttia territory. The research defines the meaning of T. Okunevskyi’s activity for Ukrainian organizations development (societies such as “Prosvita” (“Enlightenment”), “Mishchanska Rodyna” (“Bourgeois Family”), “Besida” (“Conversation”), “Tovarystvo Kredytove” (“Crediting Society”), “Narodna Torhovlia” (“People’s Trade”), “Narodna Spilka” (“Public Society), and for Ukrainian Radical Party in Lviv, Horodenka, and Kolomyia.
T. Okunevskyi started his social activity in Kolomyia, while studying at high school. He shaped his national beliefs very soon, while formation of his worldview, viewpoints and beliefs in socio-political and nationally-cultural spheres was even longer. T. Okunevskyi’s turning into radical in 80s of XIX cent. was inspired by studying at Vienna University and his membership at Sich students society. It is here that his teachers and colleagues fostered real national spirit and patriotic views. T. Okunevskyi’s character was highly influenced by his striving for cognition of everything new, unusual and interesting and this is how decisive the radical views were.
During popular assembly in Kolomyia, T. Okunevskyi delivers successful speech in front of his electors and this speech was the beginning of his political career. This is in Kolomyia Region that he was shaped as a politician and organizer of Ukrainian national movement in that region. T. Okunevskyi also showed his political position and attitude towards his compatriots during political agitation before the elections. T. Okunevskyi conducted agitation himself, he personally went from village to village of his election district and spoke about his program. This event characterizes him as a real people’s ambassador. Being a deputy of Halychyna Seim and ambassador to the State Council (Reichsrat) T. Okunevskyi has not changed his political position of protecting the rights of his compatriots. Basic principles, for which he struggled, were as following: fair elections, new election law, studying in Ukrainian, opening of new educational establishments in Eastern Halychyna. The politician did not neglect church, land issues, and roads construction and repair. By his speeches T. Okunevskyi tackled and frequently solved the most pressing problems of Ukrainian society.
T. Okunevskyi was representative of Ukrainian national movement at the state level, meaning public and political figure at the level of state. He lived in Vienna, Lviv and Horodenka, he was two times elected as ambassador to Halychyna Seim and three times to the Reichsrat, held senior roles in the most important Ukrainian societies and Ukrainian Radical Party. Along with this, he was active, dedicated public figure, worked a lot for the welfare of his compatriots, worked in many spheres of social and political life, he left autobiographic memoirs and political speeches.
The resluts of his civil activities were known to most of Halychyna people mainly of those districts, where he lived and worked. But on the scale of all Halychyna T. Okunevskyi was known first of all as a politician and only later as a lawyer. However, all his political successes do not diminish his social work. Okunevskyi was one of leading organisers, leaders of Ukrainian national movement in Halychyna, who tried to realize the idea of independent Ukrainian nation building.
Key words: T. Okunevskyi, deputy, State advice, Ukrainian parliamentarism, Vienna.

Література – 18

УДК 94(477.83/84,, 1920-1939’’)

Р.П. Мельник
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”,
Інститут гуманітарних та соціальних наук


© Мельник Р.П., 2014

На підставі нових архівних документів розкрито проблему матеріально-технічного забезпечення Збройних сил в працях військовиків інтернованої армії Української Народної Республіки. Показано основні спроби військових інтернованої армії УНР спроектувати єдиний напрямок побудови регулярної армії національного зразка. Це питання тісно пов’язане із розробкою воєнної доктрини, яка в основі закладалась із положеннями матеріального і технічного забезпечення армії, у військовий і в мирний час.
Ключові слова: архівні документи, матеріально-технічне забезпечення, військо¬вики, Українська Народна Республіка, воєнна доктрина.

The thesis is devoted to complex research of Ukrainian military theoretical thought of the interwar period. Based on the deep analysis and systematization of a wade range of sources, it highlights the main stages of the conceptual approaches as to the principles of military engineering in the period of liberation competitions of 1917-1921 in the studies of military historians. It elucidates the role the Ukrainian military authors played in the exploration of the theoretical regulations of the military doctrine in the scientific papers as regards the national construction of the armed forces. The research examines the organization, areas and achievements of the scientific-historical and military-theoretical work of the military researchers of the diaspora. The author analyses historical experience of military engineering in the days of the national revolution 1917-1921 in scientific and memoirs-analytical works of military historians in the period of the Central Rada, Hetmanate, Directory and Western Ukrainian People’s Republic. It is emphasized that the dominant issue of the studies being analyzed and of the memoirs-analytical works of military historians was the history of the Ukrainian Revolution 1917-1921 and the analysis of the military engineering of that time. Deep comprehension and examination of the armed forces formation in the time of the liberation competitions allowed the military experts to start scientific theoretical work aimed at studying the military doctrine and therewith lay the foundation for building a regular military force with all its components.
Key words: the archived documents, logistical support, military theoretical, Ukrainian Republic of People's, military doctrine.

Література – 34

УДК (093) 004.738.5 [004.451.52+004.14]

Ж.В. Мина, А.М. Пелещишин
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
Інститут гуманітарних та соціальних наук


© Мина Ж.В., Пелещишин А.М., 2014

Досліджуються особливості колективного суспільного документування історичних процесів збройних формувань України періоду національно-визвольної революції 1917–1921 рр. в українській Вікіпедії. Моніторинг матеріалів української Вікіпедії свідчить про те, що інформація щодо Збройних сил зазначеного періоду потрібна і цікава як для наукового співтовариства, так і для широкого загалу громадськості.
Ключові слова: історичні процеси, збройні формування, Україна, Вікіпедія, громадськість.

This article considers the current problem of investigation of the collective public documentation of the historical process of Ukrainian armed formation in the period of national liberation revolution of 1917-1921 in Ukrainian Wikipedia. Today Ukrainian Wikipedia has insufficient number of articles about the Armed Forces formation in the time of Ukrainian national liberation revolution of 1917-1921.
The first wiki-article in this issue in the November 2007 is published. It was a brief article that a summary is contained. Gradually it is complemented and intensified of sources. Thus, in the first wiki-article “Army of Ukrainian National Republic” the just one reference to the “Small Dictionary of History of Ukraine” (edited by Valeriy Smoliy) is contained and the next wiki-article references to authors-memoirists are contained.
The text in further version of wiki-article is structured. Appearing the following sections of wiki-article:
1) Precondition;
2) Structure;
3) Hostilities;
4) The end of existence of Army of Ukrainian National Republic.
The beginning of the article is the definition which is as follows: “The Army of Ukrainian National Republic (The Ukrainian People’s Army, also known as the UNA, Naddnipryanska Army, Effective Army) – The armed forces of the UNA during the Ukrainian national liberation movement in 1917-21 years; formation that established on the basis the ukrainian parts of Russian Imperial Army, volunteer detachments, “Ukrainian Sich Riflemen", “Free Cossacks” and galicians which are prisoners of war.”
In 26 January 2008, the first archival photograph of soldiers of the Ukrainian People’s Republic is appeared in an article. It is quite understandable that the article required the editing, refining, expanding of information. The expansion of content that is added to sections and received clarification in item by item is resulted. However, the source base is not expanded, and basic information gathered from the afore-cited sources.
In 2 August, 2009 a significant addition – chapter 10 that titled as “See also” is appeared. A new article “Awards of UNR” is written, which starts its own history as collective document. Nowadays this article is meaningful and it contains tables, photo documents and video archive. The Russian version of article “Army of Ukrainian National Republic” is in a condensed form than Ukrainian version of this article. There are no references in two variants of article. It is a common drawback of most wiki-articles that giving specific data without references to primary source. English version is also different from the Ukrainian version. The some sections are separated. These sections in the previous version are distributed. For example, section “Ranks and insignia”. It presents the military ranks of the end of 1917: Otaman Frontu, Otaman Armii, Otaman Korpusu, Otaman Divizii, Otaman Brihady (Brigadier general).
Thus, at present there are many documents and sources available to scientists on the Internet with the exception of the traditional system of libraries and archives. Their successful use of requires from users the knowledge of the general structure and mechanisms of work in global information network, the successful compilation of requests to search engines and databases and skills of critical estimate of resources of historic thematic.
Nowadays the collective public documentation of the historical process of Ukrainian armed formation in the period of national liberation revolution of 1917-1921 in Ukrainian Wikipedia is not completely considered. There are a number of difficulties. The solution of these difficulties a unified strategy of research is required. The real influence and participation of historians to create pages with using the reliable sources are needed. A lot of unresolved issues concerning documentation of the historical process of Ukrainian armed formation in the period of national liberation revolution of 1917-1921 in Ukrainian Wikipedia are arisen before historians.
Key words: historical processes, armed forming, Ukraine, Wikipedia, public.

Література – 8

УДК 94(477)”1917/1920”:

М.В. Моргун1, Т.С. Лушкавнюк2
1Львівський державний університет внутрішніх справ,
2Шевченківське РВ УМВСУ у Чернівецькій області


© Моргун М.В., Лушкавнюк Т.С., 2014

Розглянуто бронеавтомобільні формування Першої світової війни та досвід їх засто¬сування. Вивчено передумови становлення бронеавтомобільних підрозділів українських армій.
Ключові слова: бронеавтомобілі, Перша світова війна, українська армія.

Formation armor pieces Ukrainian army carried out taking into account the experience of combat use similar intended parts of the former Russian army and, to a large extent, using techniques inherited after the collapse of the Russian army. Therefore, it is reasonable to analyze the organizational principles armor and weapon parts of the Russian army during the First World War.
During the First World War, when fighting over a substantial period of time had maneuverable character in the Russian army have developed mobile units equipped with armored vehicles. Most of them, belonging to the South-West and the Romanian Front, was based on the territory of Ukraine or the adjoining areas.
Thus it can be argued that Ukraine in late 1917 had some starting conditions for the formation of their own armor parts. There were quite numerous broneavtomobilni combat units that were part of the Southwestern and Romanian fronts. There was also some technical base for their activities. Existing personnel was prepared as a soldier and officer. Finally, it has gained significant experience in combat use broneavtomobilnyh parts. In order to realize these opportunities and create their own full armor parts, the political and military leadership of Ukraine had to solve several priority objectives, namely to keep these units property from looting and export from Ukraine, to prevent the destruction of repair facilities, especially - railway workshops, preserve human potential broneavtomobilnyh parts. Finally, it was necessary to determine the place of armor units in the structure of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
Key words: the armored cars, First world war, Ukrainian army.

Література – 16

УДК 947.7+943.8

О. О. Морушко, Л. М. Матієшин
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”


© Морушко О. О., Матієшин Л. М., 2014

Висвітлено позицію провідних польських партій Російської імперії напередодні та на початку Першої Світової війни. Викрито та проаналізовано основні причини їх процарської позиції.
Ключові слова: Польща, політичні партії, Російська імперія, Перша Світова війна.

The investigation of the various aspects and preconditions targeting influential Polish political parties on different political camps before the First World War, has a great interest for researchers of modern Polish history. The activities of Polish forces, which functioned on the territory of the Russian Empire at that time, had a significant impact on the historical development.
From the first days of the war the absolute majority of the Polish right parties of the Kingdom of Poland took a pronounced attitude supporting the tsarism. The activity of the influential Polish People’s Democratic Party, known by shortened name – endeky, became the particularly striking example of this policy.
The book of a leader of this party R. Dmowski –“Germany, Russia and the Polish question” became the ideological substantiation of the endeky’s politics.
The Party of real politicks shared the same ideas and similar position as the endeky did. This party was created in 1904. The party united in its ranks the Polish land barons, the big bourgeoisie, the intelligentsia associated with it and higher Catholic clergy. After the revolution of 1905 - 1907, the Party of real politicks actively collaborated with endeky.
The same concept was also taken by the two types of progressivities: Progressive Party and the Polish progressive association.
Endeky and their leader R. Dmowski as the most important target of their activity decided to defeat Germany, regardless of the outcome of the war for Poland.
The Polish question for endeky at the beginning of the war had secondary importance. That is why, endeky and their leader R. Dmowski at the beginning of the war considered it as domestic issue of tsarist Russia.
Thus, we can conclude that the most of the Polish nobility and wealthy citizens indirectly through parties, which expressed their interests - endekiv and realists, actively supported the idea of unification of all Polish lands within Tsarist Russia under the tsarist authorities at the beginning of the First World War.
Key words: Poland, political parties, Russian empire, First World war.

Література – 23

УДК 94 (477.83/86):329.17

А.Я. Нагірняк
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук


© Нагірняк А.Я., 2014

Висвітлено діяльність відомого галицького громадсько-політичного діяча Кирила Трильовського, який як представник ліворадикального напряму створив на початку ХХ ст. в легальних умовах Австро -Угорщини січові організації.
Ключові слова: Кирило Трильовський, ліворадикальний напрям, Австро-Угор¬щина, січові організації.

The article highlights the work of the famous Galician public figure Cyryl Tryl’ovs’kyi who being a representative of left radical direction in the early twentieth century in legal terms of the Austro-Hungarian created Sich organizations that were the first proto-type of military forces, and later on their basis Ukrainian national connections in the Austrian armed forces were created.
It was determined that in addition to officially defined tasks – providing fire security, development of physical training of youth – “Sich “ directed its activities in the extention of education, organization of social life.
Within Sich movement many financial institutions and cooperatives appeared. They were considered the economic basis of the national government in the future.
The organizational and physical training in the Ukrainian “Sich” contributed to the creation of national military structure within the Austrian Armed Forces before the First World War.During the time of War K.Trylovskyy contributed to the formation of national military units.
This paper traces the process of forming social and political views of Cyryl Tryl’ovs’kyi on the background of socio economic and political development of Western lands in the late XIX - early XX century.
Even being a student Сyryl Tryl’ovs’kyi entered the Ruthenian- Ukrainian Radical Party which formed its ideological and political views and determined the direction of future life path. Soon the young lawyer became one of the most active and popular party leader. At the seventh congress in October 1898 Cyryl Tryl’ovs’kyi along with Ivan Franko and Michael Pavlik was eleced Chief Executive. Despite the fact that K.Trylovskyy shared the same ideas as Drahomaniv, he always had his stable position, which often led to conflicts with the leadership of the party.
The article analyzes the activity Cyryl.Trylovskoho before and during World War I on the formation of national military groups, discovered his role in the creation and deployment of military activities of Sich Legions.
He joined the main Ukrainian Council while working as a member of the total Ukrainian Council in Vienna.This paper investigates the role and place of Cyryl Tryl’ovs’kyi in social and political processes of Western Ukraiinian National Republic period. It was stressed that the activity K.Trylovskyy during Western Ukraiinian National Republic was aimed at nation-building. In October 1918 he joined the Ukrainian National Council of Ukraiinian National Republic. During 1918-1919. Cyryl Trylovskyy worked as deputy head of the district department of the National Council in Kolymna, a member of the Committee of Foreign Affairs,he was a member of the military and administrative committee Ukrainian National Republic. In April 1919 K.Trylovskyy was elected to the Regional Land Commission, which implemented the project of agrarian reform. As a member of Ukrainian National Republic he held a special position and supported the need for party building and the reactivation of the Radical Party.
At the same period Cyryl Trylovskyy created Peasant - radical club that became the basis of Peasant - Radical Party, and in February 1919, reestablished the publication of radical newspaper “ The public voice” in Colomya.A separate line of investigation is devoted to studying the peculiarities of the Ukrainian youth and national sport organizations and the role of Cyryl Tryl’ovskyi in this movement during interwar period in Poland. After the fall of Western Ukraiinian National Republic Cyryl Trylovskyi worked in the government of Ye.Petrushevych. His political activity was aimed at expantion of Peasant - Radical Party in Eastern Galicia and Ukrainian national council. In 1921 Cyryl Trylovskyy created working sports association “ Sich”, which represented the Ukrainian workers in International competitions in Vienna. Back in Galicia, K.Trylovskyy tried to reactivate the Sich organizations, but under the rule of the Polish government that was practically impossible. At the same time, he positively assessed the national sports movement (‘Sokil’, ‘Plast’) and contributed much to it’s development.
Key words: Cyryl Tryl'ovs'kyi, Ukrainian Radical Party, Austria-Hungary, Ukrainian "Sich" organizations.

Література – 19

УДК 94(477)”12”: 355.4

Б.А. Омельчук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”,
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук


© Омельчук Б.А., 2014

Із залученням письмових та археологічних джерел проаналізовано боротьбу київських князів за утвердження своєї влади на Прикарпатті до кінця XI ст. Зроблено спробу переглянути існуючі погляди на етапи утвердження великокнязівської влади на цій території. Розглянуто особливості територіального розвитку Прикарпаття та Подністров’я у другій половині X–XI ст.
Ключові слова: Галицьке князівство, археологічні джерела, великокнязівська влада, Прикарпаття, Подністров’я.

The article involving written and archaeological sources the Kievan princes fight to uphold its authority in the Carpathian region by the end of XI century. An attempt to revise the existing views on the steps of the Grand approval authorities in the area. The features of territorial development Carpathians and the Dniester in the second half of the X-XI centuries. Analyzed tibal dukes activity as war-lords and military organizers against Great Kievan Princes.
The appearance of the tribal union of the ancient Slavs in the Carpathian region who took afterwards the name of Croats, could be dated back to the last quarter of the 8th – middle of the 9th cc. The Upper Dniester region together with the nearby territories between the Dniester and the Pruth are considered to be the primary territory the ancient Slavic tribal formation appeared at. Afterwards it gradually extended and covered both sides of the Carpathians. For example the Croats inhabited the upper current of the Tyssa river behind the Carpathians.
Key words: Galychina principality, archaeological sources, Kievan duxs power, Prykarpattya, Dniester river basin.

Література – 24

УДК 904:728.82(477.82)

С.Д. Панишко
Східноукраїнський національний університет імені Лесі Українки


© Панишко С.Д., 2014

Розглянуто зовнішні морфологічні ознаки городищ у селах Фалемичі, П’ятидні, Хотин та селищі Ратно на Волині. Для цих пам’яток характерна наявність ізольованого пагорбу невеликих розмірів. Ця ознака дозволяє зарахувати їх до укріплень “motte and bailey”, які є залишками лицарських замків. Пропонується графічна реконструкція такого замку у с. Фалемичі поблизу Володимира-Волинського.
Ключові слова: городище, “motte”, “bailey”, замок, лицар.

Sergij Panishko Attemps to reconstruct ecsterior of late Middle Ages fortifications “motte and bailey” in Volyn in accordance with their morphological characteristics The article deals with the exterior morphological features of the settlements in villages of Falemychi, P’yatydni, Khotyn and the town of Ratno in Volyn. The most illustrative feature of those historical monuments is a hill of a not big size located aside. This characteristic feature allows to refer them to the fortifications of “motte and bailey” type, which are considered to be the remnants of the knight’s castles. The graphical reconstruction of such a castle in Falemychi near by Volodymyr-Volyns’kyj has been suggested in the article.
Key words: settlement, motte, bailey, castle, knight.

Література – 24

УДК 904:623.444.92(477.85)„11/12”

С.В. Пивоваров1, В. Калініченко²
1Національний Києво-Печерський історико-культурний заповідник,
²Чернівецький національний університет імені Ю. Федьковича


© Пивоваров С.В., Калініченко В., 2014

Проаналізовано предмети озброєння дальнього та ближнього бою, а саме наконечники стріл та бронзове навершя руків’я середньовічного меча, виявлені під час до¬слідження Чорнівського городища першої половини ХІІІ ст. у 2012 р. Здійснено типо¬логізацію та аналіз предметів озброєння. Виявлені матеріали містять важливі дані з військово-політичної історії Буковини та дають змогу простежити взаємовідносини військо¬вого контингенту Чорнівського городища із суміжними територіями Русі та Європи у ХІІІ ст.
Клю чові слова: наконечники стріл, навершя руків’я меча, Чорнівське городище, типологізація, Буковина.

This article analyzes of armaments and long-range melee, such as arrowheads and bronze pommel handle medieval sword found during research Chornivska hillfort first half of the XIII century in 2012. The authors typology and analysis of armaments. The authors introduced into scientific circulation quite rare for the region discovery, namely head bronze finial medieval sword hilt, which was discovered on the Chornivka hillfort first half of XIII century in 2012. Argued that the head pommel sword has baltic origin. Detection allows us to trace and find more to explore military affairs of the local population, in particular to trace mutual troop Chornivka hillfort with adjacent territories of Russia and Europe in the XIII century. The purpose of this study is to put into circulation actually first discovery details of the sword, which clearly can be attributed to XII – early XIII сеntury from Siret territory to the Middle Dniester river interfluve, namely head pommel or handle of a medieval sword and a comprehensive review of the findings, it’s analysis, interpretation and implementation types. Consequently, the typology A. Kirpichnikova by their morphological features head pommel sword with Chornivka hillfort of the type I – swords with bronze cross bronze pommel with five or seven parts. The shape of the pommel blades of this type are similar to swords such as K, S, and T1 by typologically V. Kazakyavichusa. Bronze swords of the given type, as indicated by A. Kirpichnikov with cast ornament with circles characteristic of romance art ХІІ century. This type of sword was the inscription on the blade. All findings of this type swords found in the settlements and burials of the XII-XIII century.
Key words: tips of arrows, pommel handle of sword, Chornivska hillfort, typology, Bukovyna.

Література – 18

УДК [94 (430)+741.5:32] “1914/19”

Л.Ю. Питльована
Український Католицький університет,
кафедра світової історії нового та новітнього часу


© Питльована Л.Ю., 2014

Проаналізовано антибританську політичну карикатуру у Німеччині як засіб пропаганди у період Першої світової війни. Досліджено особливості політичної карикатури як історичного джерела; система організації пропаганди у кайзерівській Німеччині. Розглядаються образи, сюжети та персонажі карикатур, їх семантичне значення. Аналізується вплив антибританської карикатури на формування негативних стереотипів у німецькому суспільстві.
Ключові слова: Перша Світова війна, Німеччина, політична карикатура, Великобританія, суспільство.

The article is devoted to analyzing of anti-British political cartoons in Germany as propaganda methods during World War I. The features of political cartoons as a historical source; the system of propaganda in Imperial Germany are investigated. The images, the plots and the cartoons characters, their semantic meaning are considered. Influence of anti-British cartoons on formation of negative stereotypes in German society is analyzed.
Key words: First World war, Germany, political cartoons, Great Britain, society.

Література – 19

УДК 341.43:94(477)„192”

Т.І. Плазова
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”


© Плазова Т.І., 2014

Досліджується та аналізується питання діяльності української еміграції в країнах Європи в міжвоєнний період ХХ ст. Проаналізовано чисельність та соціальний статус української еміграції того періоду. Особливий інтерес становить завершальний етап визвольних змагань та перехід українського війська разом із державними органами в еміграцію за кордон. На сучасному етапі завданням є проаналізувати діяльність українських емігрантів за кордоном, їхні прагнення підтримувати дух національної свідомості, дослідити їхній вплив на подальший розвиток ідеї боротьби за незалежність на теренах України, адже згодом саме ці люди долучилися до активних дій у відстоюванні суверенності України в роки Другої світової війни.
Ключові слова: українська еміграція, країни Європи, українське військо, національна свідомість, Друга світова війна.

This article investigates and analyzes the issue of Ukrainian emigration in Europe in the interwar period of the twentieth century, also - the number and social status of Ukrainian emigration in the period. At the turn of the 20-30s of the twentieth century there were finally decided the main centers of concentration of Ukrainian political emigration in Europe.
They became centers of Ukrainian political thought outside Ukraine, and their activities are reminded of the existence of the Ukrainian people. It should be noted that in most European countries in general knew little about Ukraine, did not perceive it as a geopolitical unit and not bother Ukrainian question.
Views on Ukrainians as a phenomenon insignificant is consistent with the concept of pro-imperial measures for the development of colonial territories as those that are incapable of independent statehood. Development of Ukraine as an independent and democratic state is not possible without a comprehensive and detailed study of its history. Of particular interest is attracting the final stage of the struggle for liberation and transition Ukrainian troops together with the authorities to emigrate abroad.
It is at present the task to analyze the activity of Ukrainian emigrants abroad, their desire to maintain the spirit of national consciousness and explore their impact on the further development of the idea of the struggle for independence in Ukraine. Great importance and how they passed on to their descendants love Ukraine and the desire to see this great country free from Russia’s power and sovereign.
After 1991 the historiography situation radically changed in Ukraine: established the spirit of pluralism in scientific work, changed priorities, methodology and research methods, the researchers had access to previously banned archival materials, some of which have returned from abroad. It is through archival documents can reliably reproduce the events of those times, including being Ukrainian political emigration in the European inter-war period. At the present stage for Ukrainian scientists are challenged to analyze the activity of Ukrainian emigrants abroad, their desire to maintain the spirit of national consciousness and explore their impact on the further development of the idea of the struggle for independence in Ukraine. Of great importance is the fact that how they passed on to their descendants love Ukraine and the desire to see this great country free from Russia’s power and sovereign.
Key words: Ukrainian emigration, countries of Europe,Ukrainian army, national consciousness, Second world War.

Література – 12

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