Volume 3, Number 1 (2016)

УДК 304.4:323(477:4)

ОФІЦІЙНИЙ ТА НЕОФІЦІЙНИЙ ПОГЛЯД
НА СУЧАСНУ УКРАЇНСЬКУ КУЛЬТУРНУ ПОЛІТИКУ

І. Я. Хома
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

© Хома І. Я., 2016

Розкрито ставлення до офіційної політики в сфері культури та її наслідків станом на кінець 2013 р. Акцент зосереджено на офіційних даних та думках інтелектуалів та експертів українського громадського суспільства.
Ключові слова: Культурна політика, спадщина, національна пам’ять, громадянське суспільство.

Euromaidan and dignity revolution, which further continues, clearly show that without change in the national policy of culture change the country will be very difficult. It’s tactics and strategy formation space of life for the citizens of Ukraine, information about Ukrainian and country in the world, formed throughout history and established in today’s harmful and humiliating stereotypes, myths. Obviously the official state culture has long been not satisfied an active, creative part of society. Outside the official data analysis of cultural policy meet in publications, cultural in content, authored by writers, critics, scholars and public figures.
Balance cultural processes, that attitude to culture as an important tool strengthening state sovereignty on the political, spiritual, economic and other levels and other levels within Ukraine and abroad ensured civil society. They monitor cultural processes. Among the most notable, sharp and accurate assessments of cultural policy is advisable to allocate positions L. Kostenko, I. Dziuba, O. Zabuzhko, M. Riabczuk and other lesser-known experts. These persons is difficult to accuse of bias.
In the article was put goal disclose the relationship to the national cultural policy of the Ukrainian intelligentsia and civil society experts, that are recognized in Ukraine and the world.
Key words: Cultural policy, heritage, national memory, civil society.

Література – 9

УДК 327(477+438) “18/19”:070(477)

УКРАЇНСЬКО-ПОЛЬСЬКІ ВЗАЄМИНИ
У ПОЛІТИЦІ ХРИСТИЯНСЬКИХ СУСПІЛЬНИКІВ
ГАЛИЧИНИ НАПРИКІНЦІ ХІХ – НА ПОЧАТКУ ХХ ст.

А. Б. Кліш
Тернопільський національний педагогічний
університет імені Володимира Гнатюка

© Кліш А. Б., 2016

Проаналізовано складні взаємини між українцями та поляками у Галичині наприкінці ХІХ – на початку ХХ ст. Показано ставлення християнських суспільників щодо польського питання упродовж 1896–1914 рр. Досліджено методи вирішення міжнаціональних суперечностей партійними діячами, їх ставлення щодо польського питання. З’ясовано, що їхня позиція була толерантною та поміркованою щодо ставлення до поляків.
Ключові слова: християнські суспільники, Галичина, польсько-українські взаємини, часопис “Руслан”, християнсько-суспільний рух.

The article analyzes the complex relationships between Ukrainian and Polish in Halychyna in the late XIX – beginning
XX century. Showing Christian socials attitude on the Polish question during the 1896–1914. Methods of resolving international conflicts party leaders, their attitude to the Polish question. It was found that their position was moderate and tolerant attitude on the Poles.
Interethnic tension in Halychyna had a rising tendency. Christian socials took the stand between radical Ukrainian and Polish political forces. The editors of the newspaper severely criticized Polish administration and the public for obstinacy and at the same time urged Ukrainian national democrats to withdraw from their political arsenal of solely oppositional tactics and to take a more flexible position. Research of the materials published on the pages of newspaper “Ruslan”
in question allows to cross the borders of traditional bipolar evaluation of Ukrainian-Polish conflict at the turn of the
XIX–XX centuries, to open that surroundings, representatives of which understood the political process as the interaction of opponents and not as a destructive fight of enemies.
Key words: Christian socials, Halychyna, Polish-Ukrainian relations, newspaper “Ruslan”, christian social movement.

Література – 32

УДК 930(477)

НАУКОВО-ІСТОРИЧНА СПАДЩИНА М. ЛОЗИНСЬКОГО

А. Я. Нагірняк
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

© Нагірняк А. Я., 2016

Проаналізовано науково-історичну спадщину М. Лозинського про процеси, що відбувались в Україні під час національно-визвольних змагань. Вказано, що основними напрямами наукових досліджень М. Лозинського була державно-правова та міжнародно-правова проблематика.
Ключові слова: М. Лозинський, Галичина, Польща, національно-визвольний рух.

In this article Lozynskyi’s historical heritage is taken into account while analyzing processes which took place in Ukraine during national-liberation movement. The article states that M. Lozynskyi began his career in the well-known Lviv newspaper “Dilo”, where he started to work in 1900, and later become an editor of it until the World War I.
In the following research the works of M. Lozynskyi dedicated to national-liberation movement and its defeat are observed. The main part of his works refers to the defense of the Ukrainian people rights during the national-liberation movement and the idea of Ukrainian state is brought up.
His later works related to the problems of the international rights. The following articles were written: “The Protection of National Minorities in the International Law” (1923), “The Struggle for National identiy in the Versailles Agreement” (1923), university textbook “The International law” (1922) Living in Prague he campaigned for the state rights of Ukraine.
In this article is mentioned that the historian M. Lozynskyi looks into the violation of the Ukrainian people rights by Poland which occupied the main part of west Ukrainian lands. The unfair politics of the League of Nations is also highlighted. M. Lozynskyi emphasizes that the lands of the western Ukraine in any case can not be considered inhabited by a national minority,as the Ukrainian people comprise 60 % of population in each of the three provinces of Halychyna.
Summarising, the works of M. Lozynskyi demonstrate the two main aspects: state legal problems of the development of Ukraine and international-legal range of problems in particular those which relate to the national minorities.
Key words: М. Lozynskyi, Galychyna, Poland, national-liberation movement.

Література – 12

УДК 069.5:2

МУЗЕЙНІ ІННОВАЦІЇ ТА ІНТЕРАКТИВНІСТЬ
У ТЕОРІЇ ТА ПРАКТИЦІ МУЗЕЙНОЇ СПРАВИ

В. М. Банах
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

© Банах В. М., 2016

На прикладі практичного досвіду діяльності музейних установ України та світу зроблено спробу теоретично розмежувати музейні інновації та інтерактивність. Наведено конкретні приклади із практичної діяльності музеїв, спрямовану на запровадження у експозиційну, науково-фондову та освітню діяльність інноваційних та інтерактивних методик й практик.
Ключові слова: музей, інновації, інтерактивність, експозиція, фонди, маркетинг.

In this article it is attempted to carry out a theoretical distinction of museum innovations and interactivity on example of practical experience of museum institutions of Ukraine and the world. Museum innovations are considered in the broad and narrow contexts. The first one involves radical rethinking of traditional museum practices, of the places and the role of museums in society and culture, which contributes to the further evolution of the museum as a specific historical and cultural phenomenon. It also allows the museum to remain relevant in the context of contemporary social challenges. The concept of “innovations” in the narrow sense is reduced to the use of Internet resources, audiovisual and multimedia means in exposition and stock museum’s work.
Primarily museum interactivity is considered in the context of scientific and educational activity of a museum. Interactivity of a museum scientific and educational work is visible in the differentiated approach to different categories of visitors, implementation of gaming and theatrical elements into guided tour, as well as in opportunities for visitors to have tactile access to exhibits, etc.
In the article there are specific examples at practical activities of the museums that are aimed at the introduction of exposition, scientific, stock and educational activities as well as innovational and interactive techniques and practices.
Key words: мuseum, innovations, interactivity, exposition, funds, marketing.

Література – 13

УДК 008(719)(075.8)

ПОПУЛЯРИЗАЦІЯ ПАМ’ЯТОК ІСТОРІЇ ТА КУЛЬТУРИ ОРГАНАМИ МІСЦЕВОГО САМОВРЯДУВАННЯ ІЗ ЗАСТОСУВАННЯМ СУЧАСНИХ ІНФОРМАЦІЙНО-РЕКЛАМНИХ ЗАСОБІВ

Ж. В. Мина, Л. Б. Кокор
Інститут гіманітарних та соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

 Мина Ж. В., Кокор Л. Б., 2016

Проаналізовано важливість популяризації пам’яток історії та культури з використанням сучасних інформаційних технологій. Запропоновано методи впливу на туристичну привабливість місцевості за допомогою застосування органами місцевого самоврядування інформаційно-рекламних засобів.
Ключові слова: інформаційні технології, органи місцевого самоврядування, пам’ятки історії, пам’ятки культури, популяризація, реклама, туризм.

Today society is an indicator of maturity of attitude towards the monuments of history and culture. Preservation and promotion of them should be one of the important areas of public policy, because the rich cultural heritage of Ukraine is a part of world cultural heritage. Millions of historical and cultural monuments are on the state account in regions Ukraine. More than 12 mln. оf them are kept in the local museums. Historical and cultural influence on personality development, enrich its spiritual growth, causing emotional excitement, because they are unique evidence of the past. To historical and cultural monuments were not “dead”, that they “lived” need to study, promote and develop tourism sector.
Given the significant importance of tourism in the socio-economic development of certain areas, you can create urgency in the formation and implementation of tourism policy, given the interests of the regional and local economy. Tourism is a powerful engine for the development of cities, towns and the state in general.
The activities of local governments due to the general economic policy of the state, including in tourism. However, the State has delegated to local, district and regional level enough power to build tourist features in its territory. Vertical management structure should take into account when deciding the specifics of the regional tourism industry, which stems from the location, climate, tourist facilities, the infrastructure and tourist offer. So, we need to investigate the importance of tourism in regional development and to identify tools revitalization of local authorities in the provision of travel services.
The survey of contemporary technologies that can be used to promote local government is projected here. Also there is presentation of the analysis of advertising methods that can be used for illumination of the touristic agency. The choice of the informational resource is motivated here as the most optimal way of apprising citizens and tourists of events and activities in the village council.
In this work presented current modern technology that allows to create Web-sites. Here is most popular CMS are compared. The analysis of the ways of promotion of the informational resource, taking into account the institution, is also presented here. There are also recommendations for improvement of the information and documentation on activities of the local government. The issues that may arise during the implementation of work and their solutions are also considered here.
It was built informational and functional models of creation of a website that reflect the logical relations between processes and sequence of their implementation, using a structural approach to designing information systems. Also highlighted the importance of an informational resource for the local government and its role in increasing public confidence in local government and formation of tourist attraction of the region.
For implementation of technical solutions one of the most popular CMS – WordPress is used.
The paper presents the results of research in the form of a website with actualized content according to its purpose as well as selected medium of popularization.
Kеу words: advertising IT, local government, cultural monuments, historical monuments, popularization, tourism.

Література – 9

УДК 291.1 : 211 : 216 (477) “1860/1970”

ІННОВАЦІЙНІ ВИЯВИ ІСТОРИЧНОЇ ПАМ’ЯТІ
У ФІЛОСОФСЬКО-РЕЛІГІЙНИХ ІДЕЯХ: CУПЕРЕЧНОСТІ ГАРМОНІЗАЦІЇ

З. І. Тіменик
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

© Тіменик З. І., 2016

На підставі спадщини українських мислителів 60-х рр. ХІХ ст. – 70-х рр. ХХ ст. розкрито інноваційні особливості історичної пам’яті стосовно обміркованих ідей. Автор зазначає, що у контексті (між)релігійних комунікацій, міждисциплінарного простору такі особливості у системі духовної культури взаємообумовлюються. Суперечності й гармонізація у виниклих процесах є об’єктивними, закономірними, бо історична пам’ять є однією із запорук у розвиткові духовно-культурної спадщини.
Ключові слова: Бог, добро-зло, ідея, істина, історико-релігійний процес, світло-темрява, темпоритміка.

In order to elaborate on this topic, the works of Ukrainian thinkers (60s of XIX – 70s of XX c.) are analyzing (Orest Novуts’ky, Olexy Kozlov, Nicholas Berdyaev, Sergey Bulhakov, Metropolitan Ilarion (Ohijenko), Patriarch and Cardinal Joseph Slipyj). The idea of God in the structure of man and Universe, the idea of interaction of good and evil, light and darkness become the object of our research. On the basis of the universal model “now–once” and the universal relation “God–man-God” the historical memory as an interdisciplinary space is considered. The principles of graduality–consistency, transcendence, wholeness and harmony-symphony are using as partially methodological tools. The idea of God in the structure of man and the universe is considered as the condition of the historical development of religion and also from the point of view of a pseudo-religion. The idea of interaction of good and evil, light and darkness is considered and explicated from the complex point of the problem of interaction elements in the interdisciplinary space. “The religious logics” has the real function in the context of the historical memory and supposes the introduction such new concepts as “inter-religious consciousness”, “revelation studies”. The author justifies a historical interdependence of considered principles, relations, ideas and other mental constructs. A certain harmonization of analytical and synthetic thinking at different stages of historical development of religious systems is affirmed, when an act of philosophical and historical cognition was stipulated by an act of faith. Versatility and ambiguity of processes possessing elements of harmony and synthesis are validated. The regularity of harmony of individual interreligious doctrinal of concepts and phenomenа is interpreted.
Key words: God, good-evil, historical and interreligious process, idea, light-darkness, temporal rhythm, truth.

Література – 13

УДК [94 (410)+070.48] ”1837/...”

БРИТАНСЬКІ ІЛЮСТРОВАНІ ПЕРІОДИЧНІ ВИДАННЯ
КІНЦЯ ХІХ – ПОЧАТКУ ХХ СТОЛІТТЯ: ПОПИТ І ПРОПОЗИЦІЯ

Л. Ю. Питльована
Український католицький університет

© Питльована Л. Ю., 2016

Досліджено історію британських ілюстрованих періодичних видань наприкінці ХІХ – на початку ХХ ст. Проаналізовано особливості пропозиції ілюстрованих газет і журналів на ринку преси, здійснено їхню типологію за жанровими особливостями та цільовою аудиторією. Значну увагу звернено на фактори, які сприяли збільшенню асортименту ілюстрованих видань: технічні та технологічні можливості поліграфії, розвиток газетярської справи, збільшення читацьких кіл, розвиток образотворчого мистецтва та художньої культури тощо.
Ключові слова: Велика Британія, ілюстрація, преса, читачі.

The research paper analyzes the history of British illustrated periodicals of the late XIX – early XX century. Illustrated periodicals and newspapers both demand and supply features in the mass media market is explored. The proposed typology for illustrated print media is made according to the genre specifics and target audience of readers. The research paper attaches considerable importance to the factors responsible for the increasing of the assortment of illustrated print media and making them more available and accessible, such as constant improving of printing process and technique, the development of newspaper industry, expanding readership to the lower strata of society, the development of fine arts and visual culture etc.
The development of the British illustrative publications took place within a context of quantitative increase and
a qualitative improvement of the newspapers and magazines. The success of the press and publishing was closely dependent on the economic, political and social development of the United Kingdom. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the audience for periodicals in Great Britain has been greatly enlarged by including the representatives of the middle and lower classes. The increase in Britain’s population, the spread of elementary education, shortening of the weekly working hours have created favourable conditions for people to spend their leisure time for reading books and newspapers. The lowering of prices was accompanied by system of wide distribution thus has fostered the popularization of mass-circulation periodicals and newspapers.
In the last third of the nineteenth century it was technically feasible to print good-quality images. However, the news media had often preferred to print timely information rather than illustrative materials. Among illustrated periodicals, better-educated reading public have preferred to the literary and art journals. Their illustrations reflected all the trends of the fine arts of this time. On the other hand, a large number of illustrated newspapers and magazines suited tastes and preferences of less-educated and more unpretentious audience, and have mainly been illustrated in traditional style. At the same time, such printed publication as “Punch” or “The Illustrated London News” has been a sort of a standard of quality among illustrated periodicals and were in great demand in a large segment of readers.
Keywords: United Kingdom, history, illustrated periodicals, readers.

Література – 20

УДК 902(477.83)

ПРОБЛЕМИ ЗБЕРЕЖЕННЯ ТА ЕКСПОНУВАННЯ
АРТИЛЕРІЇ XIV–XVІІІ СТОЛІТТЯ В МУЗЕЯХ

М. А. Верхотурова
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

© Верхотурова М. А., 2016

Проаналізовано проблемні питання, котрі виникають сьогодні у музеях під час збереження та експонування давньої артилерії. Розглянуто етапи та процеси, котрі проходить гармата з моменту потрапляння до музею і до експонування. Висвітлені проблемні завдання, котрі виникають під час ведення фондово-облікової документації музейних колекцій давньої артилерії. Обґрунтовано висновок про шляхи та можливі вирішення завдань сучасних музеїв під час збереження та експонування артилерії XІV–XVIІІ ст.
Ключові слова: музей, артилерія XІV–XVIІІ ст., збереження, експонування, фондово-облікова документація, електронний каталог.

Today in Ukraine sciences like museology and weaponology are being actively developed, military history of our country is greatly popularized. There is a growing interest, especially among young people, in military museums and weapon museum collections, which causes the need to reform museum exhibitions of weapons relatively to challenges of our time taking into account the latest technological capabilities and consumer needs.
One of the factors of the preservation of the national identity is an accessibility to review historical monuments, including ancient artillery, which has always been and still is a kind of a symbol of the power of those whom belongs to. Putting into scientific use the maximum number of cannons, and here we mean all models collected in museums and private collections – will make possible the complete opening of the historical fate of artillery in Ukraine, and fill the pages of national history with new colors.
Artillery of XIV–XVIII centuries is a collectible weapon that has artistic, historic, ethnographic, cultural, scientific and antique value, and should be preservated and protected under the law Ukraine.
It is not enough just to put the cannon on exhibition. It is important to put it into a historical context where the barrel becomes a real reliable source of historical information. This requires a proper definition of the typology of the barrel, the implementation of professional measurements and description of the cannon. Where, when, by whom, for whom is made, whom belonged to, in which events participated the cannon? How did it get into the museum? Another important point is the professional decryption of heraldry, epigraphy and marking on the barrel, if there are available. That is the best possible realization of all stages of attribution of the subject.
An important aspect of organizing the collection of artillery in museums is its accounting, which means making the fund-accounting records. This process is very important in the context of attribution of a cannon, as it documentary provides a record of all known amount of the information about the subject.
Old artillery – is one of the components of the material and historical culture heritage of nation. The task of museums is to maximize the coverage of all aspects of the problem for visitors, and to make funds available for scientists.
Paradoxical as it sounds, but museology and weaponology today in Ukraine are quite young sciences In the last decade they have been rapidly developmed – there were held professional conferences, were published profound research in this field, methodical material has been creating, gradually unifieds terminology. A whole brunch of scientists on the basis of a lot of Ukrainian universities and museums are working on museology and weaponology, to output it to a new level.
Key words: museums, artillery of XIV–XVIII centuries, preservation, exhibits, inventory description.

Література – 27

МІСТЕЧКО БІЛГОРОД ТА СЕЛО БІЛІВ1 У ХVІ ст.
У КОНТЕКСТІ МАЙНОВИХ СПРАВ КНЯЗІВ ЧОРТОРИЙСЬКИХ

М. В. Федоришин
КЗ “Культурно-археологічний центр “Пересопниця”

© Федоришин М. В., 2016

Здійснено джерелознавчий аналіз опублікованих у книзі “Князі Чорторийські: документи і матеріали ХVI–XVII cт.” документів під № 1, 4, 6–9, 11. Виявлено територіальні межі містечка Білгорода та села Білева, належності їх до замків та обсяг їхньої власності. Матеріали щодо локалізацїї цих двох поселень публікуються вперше. Дослідник вважали містечко Білгород та село Білів одним поселенням. На думку автора, сьогодні вони мають величезний інтерес місцевої громади, яку цікавить подальша музефікація історичного городища з метою залучення туристів. Стаття розрахована для вчителів історії, краєзнавців, наукових працівників музеїв, працівників органів охорони культурної спадщини, органів самоврядування Зорянської громади Рівненської області.
Ключові слова: Волинь, князь Чорторийський, князь Пронський, замок Білгород, замок Жуків, село Білів, культурна спадщина, громада.

The article addresses the problem of identifying the historical town of Belgorod settlements and villages Bileva the first half of the sixteenth century. The study was conducted on the basis of source analysis of documents published in the book “Princes Czartoryski family, documents and materials XVI–XVII century”. Documents under number 1, 4, 6–9, 11 number. For the first time proved that modern Bilevi settlement in the village at the time of the early modern time was Biloroda castle town in the early sixteenth century. But from the second half of the sixteenth century. – Bileva castle town.
Today Bilevi settlement of the status of cultural heritage monument of national importance.
Modern social needs lead to a cultural change in the use of cultural heritage of national importance. On this basis, local communities have to develop tourism. Muzefikatsiyu is the question of the settlement.
On the basis of modern scientific understanding of the role of the use of historical monuments in the current social and cultural conditions, it is necessary to carefully examine the history of the settlements. The article revealed the localization of the castle, town, village Bileva. Also, the documents can learn about farming towns and villages of Belgorod Bileva names and owners.
This study will form the right approach to further muzefikatsiyi settlement. The vision of the museum as a social and cultural institution in modern terms is complemented by an understanding of its active role in the social and cultural development of society. Kulturolohichnii museum activities can be a tool for a better understanding of today’s world and meet the needs of people today.
Key words: the Great principality of Lithuania, Volhynia, Prince Chertoryyskyy Prince Pronskiy, Belgorod castle, castle Zhukov town.

Література – 5

УДК 379.822+008

МУЗЕЇ ХХІ СТОЛІТТЯ В УМОВАХ ГЛОБАЛІЗАЦІЇ:
НОВІ СМИСЛИ, ВИКЛИКИ ТА ТЕНДЕНЦІЇ

Н. Б. Панас
Інститут гуманітарних та соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

© Панас Н. Б., 2016

Визначено сучасну парадигму розвитку музеїв як основних презентаторів історико-культурної спадщини, наведено провідні тенденції в середовищі європейських музеїв, окреслено основні проблеми щодо інтерпретації фондів музеїв. Велику увагу звернено на аналіз негативних тенденцій у розвитку культурного сектору. Розглянуто роль музею як ефективного інструменту для формування іміджу “відкритого суспільства”, його здатності до інтеграції громадськості до інтелектуального європейського і світового співтовариства.
Ключові слова: музей, культура, глобалізація, смисли, інтерпетація.

Modern museum environment intensively passes the process of transformation in the context of global geopolitical, economic, social and cultural changes. It is impossible to forget that exactly museums are for today that perform the duty of forming of historical memory of the Ukrainian people and identities, promotes self-actualization of nation.
Museum is now regarded not only as a storage center of cultural heritage and cultural values. Accordingly, the museum collections serve as an attractive resource for historical and cultural, social and economic environment. Traditional for museums educational activity changes its shape and scale, active recreational function of the museum is examined. The question of how the audience perceives the museum as a whole, as well as various types of displays and forms of cultural and educational activities that expectations of museums in society is actualizes. We can see changing the role of the museums in contemporary society, including in matters of education of patriotism, tolerance and overcoming cultural, ethnic fragmentation, as each of us can contribute to this area and had a positive effect on this interaction.
The purpose of this article is to define modern paradigm for the development of museums as main presenters of historical and cultural heritage, to review leading trends in European museums and to identify the main problems of museums collections interpretation. Great attention is paid to the analysis of negative tendencies in the development of cultural industry, dictated by the imperatives of market relations – the imposition of consumer’s culture on exhibits presentation, the necessary of adaptation the collection and its interpretation in accordance with the ”primitive tastes” of the visitors. The role of the museum as an effective tool for formation openness of the society, its ability to integrate public to intellectual European and world community is also reviewed. Main results obtained through usage of intermediate and empirical levels of knowledge by application methods of observation, analysis, comparison, modeling of researched sources and simulation processed sources. This set of methods ensured the validity of results.
Key words: museum, culture, globalization, meanings, interpretation.

Література – 14

УДК 930.8:005.44

НАЦІОНАЛЬНА ІСТОРИКО-КУЛЬТУРНА СПАДЩИНА В СИСТЕМІ ІСТОРИЧНОЇ ПАМ’ЯТІ ТА ВИКЛИКІВ СУЧАСНОЇ ГЛОБАЛІЗАЦІЇ

Н. М. Барановська
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

© Барановська Н. М , 2016

Теоретично обґрунтувано соціогуманітарні трансформації, їхні загрози та можливості у сучасних глобалізаційних умовах розвитку українського суспільства. Увагу закцентовано на ролі та значенні національної історико-культурної спадщини для формування консолідаційного потенціалу об’єктивної історичної пам’яті та її використанні у культурно-пізнавальній сфері й міжнародній діяльності. З’ясовано роль історичних музеїв як важливих пам’яткоохоронних і дослідницьких установ у системі суспільних цінностей та змістовного наповнення національної ідеї. Встановлено загальні чинники, які впливають на формування національної ідентичності в межах глобального світосприйняття.
Ключові слова: глобалізація, виклики, об’єктивна історична пам’ять, історико-культурна спадщина, історичний музей, самобутність.

The article is devoted to theoretical substantiation of sociohumanitarian transformations, their threats and opportunities in modern globalizational conditions of Ukrainian society’s development. Attention is paid to the role and significance of national historical and cultural heritage to form consolidational potential of objective historical memory and its use in cultural and educational sphere and international activity. The role of museums as important institutions for protection of monuments and research activity in the system of social values and rich in content filling of the national idea is clarified.The general factors that affect the formation of national identity within the global world-view are identified.
Globalization and related challenges in recent years are the subject of active research in scientific community. Carrying the popular idea of integration readiness, globalization entails unification of history, pulls aside from the real impact on national development, politics and culture of historical memory. Management of historical consciousness becomes prominent. Inspiring and traumatic moments of the historical memory that in the past were causing contradictions and conflicts are becoming not important. They are displayed in a shadow or activated in accordance with the objectives of political expediency. This primarily relates to periods of liberation struggle of Ukrainian people for statehood revival that changed the political situation in Ukraine within the national paradigm, evaluation of prominent historical figures activity, because of which there are sometimes ideological disputes about controversy questions of Second World War, historical memory about the state terror of the Soviet totalitarian regime (20–50’s XX century), the victims of which were millions of Ukrainian.
An effective counterweight to globalizational processes, that threaten the information security of Ukraine may be renewal of society’s interest to national historical and cultural heritage as a valuable intellectual property of the Ukrainian nation, powerful mean of national self-identification, consolidation and formation of objective historical memory.
An important role in processes of preservation, study and actualization of historical and cultural heritage belongs to the Historical Museum. Modern information technology and socio-cultural changes create new opportunities for effective transformation of historical and cultural values into museum exibits, rethinking of the museum displays towards rich in content filling of the national idea. This activity will help to prevent the growing trend towards cultural unification by forming in the minds of the Ukrainian nation’s representatives a sense of its unique history, culture and struggle for statehood. In addition, the value of national achievements should be meaningfully and interestingly revealed to the world, making them more prominent, featuring Ukrainian heritage as an integral and distinctive part of the historical and cultural heritage of humanity. This may be one of the most effective means to draw attention of the international community to the problem of necessity to maintain national sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine in threatening her present conditions.
Key words: globalization, challenges, objective historical memory, historical and cultural heritage, historical museum, originality.

Література 15

УДК 316.73/438.32/

КУЛЬТУРНО-МИСТЕЦЬКІ ЗАКЛАДИ ЛЬВОВА НАПРИКІНЦІ
XVIII–XIX СТОЛІТЬ ТА ЇХНІЙ ВПЛИВ НА РОЗВИТОК МІСТА

Н. М. Божко, Л. В. Цубов
Інститут підприємства та перспективних технолгій
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

© Божко Н. М., Цубов Л. В., 2016

Проаналізовано діяльність культурно-мистецьких установ Львова, що з’явилися наприкінці XVIII і XIX століть та їхній вплив на соціально-економічний розвиток міста.
Ключові слова: освіта, культура, бібліотеки, видавництва, театр, мистецтво.

Lviv has never been a large manufacturing center with the huge enterprises, factories, and integrated producers. This city has never been related to the populous cities of Ukraine. The success of this city is in a beneficial geopolitical position, an attractive investment climate, a great amount of academic and cultural institutions and the most important is a high qualification of the staff that lives there.
The aim of this article is an effort to analyze the development of cultural and art institutions of Lviv at the end of XVIII during XIX centuries, their appearance, functioning and the influence on economic and social development of the urban infrastructure.
In 1772, as a result of the first division of Poland, Galicia became a part of Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the ХІХ of September 1772 Hungarian troops penetrated into Lviv, which became an administrative centre of newly created Hungarian province – “The Kingdom of Hungary and Lodomeria”.
At the end of 18th century Lviv was a provincial city where the first manufactures just began to appear. The main kinds of production in the city still remained a trade and raw material manufacturer. A deficiency of large and medium enterprises in the city caused that just 30.8 % of active population were engaged in an industrial production. The most of Lviv population, it was 25 thousand in 1772, consisted of employees, renters, servants and freelance job’s people. It was situation in which Lviv still remained in a role of back country empire.
As late as in 30s of XIX century, the population of Lviv increased in two times. The city became more attractive and more comfortable to live in. From that time, in Lviv were living many officials, merchants, doctors, lawyers, students, artists, litterateurs and other representatives of freelance jobs, who weren’t just the citizens – they became creators of the city.
In the 90s mostly multi-storey habitable buildings and numerous administrative, cultural and art purpose buildings were built. Lviv became attractive for people of broad professions and rich representatives of region’s population. Art associations, societies, museums were organized in the city. Archives and literary private collections were set and then given to public organizations. All that enriched Lviv’s cultural life influenced the development of the multinational city and formed its identity.
Key words: education, culture, library, theatre, art.

Література – 13

УДК 004.738.5:070:930.253

ОЦИФРОВАНІ ПЕРІОДИЧНІ ВИДАННЯ ЗУНР
ЯК ІСТОРИЧНЕ ДЖЕРЕЛО

Н. С. Вовк
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

 Вовк Н. С., 2016

Розкрито значення оцифрування архівних документів для сучасного українського суспільства. Звернено увагу на оцифрованім періодичні видання Української галицької армії як джерелу інформації про встановлення єдиної соборної держави. Проаналізовано сучасні електронні архіви та часописи 1918–1919 років.
Ключові слова: ЗУНР, УГА, періодична преса, оцифрування, електронні архіви.

The urgent question for today is digitizing of documents for the period of Ukrainian national revolution of 1917–1921. The restored freedom of the press and the need of society to be informed properly led to the appearing of national information space aimed at the full realization of the idea of Ukrainian statehood. Particular note should be done on digitization and open access to media of the West Ukrainian People’s Republic (ZUNR).
“Publications of the State Secretariat of Military Affairs (Ministry of Military Control) – “Bulletin DSVS” – was an important step in providing troops with information, regulatory and legislative material. In 2015, electronic archive of the liberation movement avr.org.ua published scanned copies of 16 issues of the official “Bulletin” of military ministry of Western People’s Republic for the period 01.12.1918–10.10.1919 years (3 issues for 1918 and 13 issues for 1919). Electronic version of “Bulletin DSVS” is placed on the web site in the section “Ukrainian statehood of 1917–1921”, which consist of more than 400 digitized documents. The first editions of the magazine are the most popular among the visitors. In particular, “Bulletin DSVS” from December 1, 1918, has been downloaded 189 times and viewed 264 times.
Today, Archive of old newspapers is working with digitization of another magazine “Sagittarius” – a web site is dedicated to old newspapers, which have ever been published in Ukraine or were related to it. Web site has digitized seven different periodicals of different years.
In centralized storage for media files that are provided as free licenses – Wikimedia in section “Ukrainian Galician Army” (“Ukrainian Galician Army”) is located more than 100 photos which mostly are digitized (scanned or photographed) photographs of the periodical press of that time. Such personalized approach to digitizing information makes it possible not only to identify the members of the Ukrainian Galician Army, but also to make a comparative analysis of contemporary photographic troops and forces CAA.
In some collections of electronic exhibitions of Central Historical Archives of higher authorities and management of Kyiv (Ukraine TSDAVO) are placed periodical issues, which have been published in the Western Ukrainian People’s Republic. In particular, on the exhibition “On the Day of Ukraine” user has possibility to read some of periodical issues, such as “Ukraine”, “Republic” and “Bulletin of state laws and regulations of the western regions of the Ukrainian People’s Republic”.
In the State Archives of Lviv Region (DALO) partial publication of ZUNR’s periodicals are partially available on two exhibitions, which provide information about contemporary independence and unity of Ukrainian state: “To the 98 anniversary of the Unification Act republic Ukrainian People and the West Ukrainian Republic” and “The November rank. By the 98 anniversary of Western Ukrainian People’s Republic”.
Digitization of archival documents not only opens archival records for the modern Ukrainian society, but also lead to realizing the meaning of the struggle for independence of the state. Periodical press of Western Ukrainian People’s Republic was full of articles about fighting of Ukrainian Galician Army for independence and unity of the state. Analysis of the open information of the electronic archive make us to not only believe in victory, but also give us more power and confidence in the unity of the Ukrainian people. So to digitize the archival information additional funding should be used and develop new methods and programs for the conservation of archival documents electronically. Therefore, to digitize the archival information additional funding should be used, new methods and programs have to be developed for the conservation of archival documents electronically.
Key words: Western Ukrainian People’s Republic, Ukrainian Galician Army, periodicals, digitization, electronic archives.

Література – 16

УДК 929 (477.8)

СИДІР ГОЛУБОВИЧ – ГОЛОВА УРЯДУ ЗАХІДНОУКРАЇНСЬКОЇ НАРОДНОЇ РЕСПУБЛІКИ (СІЧЕНЬ–ЧЕРВЕНЬ 1919 р.)

О. З. Камінска
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

 Камінска О. З., 2016

Розглянуто діяльність С. Голубовича на посаді голови Державного Секретаріату ЗУНР, з’ясовано зміст та основні напрями роботи уряду, визначено його здобутки та помилки. Розкрито головні аспекти зовнішньої політики, земельної, судової, військової, культурно-освітньої реформ, реформування органів державної адміністрації та суспільного порядку, економіки та фінансів.
Ключові слова: С. Голубович, Західно-Українська Народна Республіка, Державний Секретаріат, Українська Національна Рада, національно-державне будівництво.

This article examines the S. Holubovich’s activity as a head of the State Secretariat of the ZUNR, is examined the content and main directions of work of the Government. Aspects of foreign policy revealing detailed the main land reform, judicial, military, cultural and educational reform, reform of public administration and public order, the economy and finance. It is indicated that S. Holubovych headed the Government in the most crucial period of nation-building, which was selected for the young country as huge achievements and significant losses.
In this article are justified the achievements of the Government of S. Holubovich, the article measures guidance of public order, administration of the land, creating a battle-worthy army, its financial support. It is emphasized that the Government was paying special attention to a fair solution of the national question, which was reflected in the laws for languages, in elections to the diet (sejm), in the basics of education. Under the conditions of constant warfare, which were continuing during the Ukrainian-Polish war, the Government was unable to ensure the functioning of the schools, mail, telegraph, railroads, etc.
Along with positive sides also are analyzed mistakes in the work of the State Secretariat. Despite the legislative and regulatory acts which were taken in the social sphere the Government was lingering with its decision. Agrarian reform remained unrealized to the life, food also remained as one of unsolved problems and it led to the rise of social tensions. As the negative phenomena in government activities were included some of the deficiencies in the areas of military engineering, diplomacy, etc.
Major attention is given to the analysis of foreign Government S. Holubovich, which was a priority for his conductors. It is stated, that the decisive factor that influenced the attitude of the major European States to the problems in Galicia was the “Russian question”, such as the fight against “bolshevism”. The State of the Entente in the confrontation with Bolshevik Russia considered Poland more profitable partner than the WEST, condemning it to the military defeat.
Key words: S. Holubovych, Western Ukrainian Folk Republic, State Secretari, Ukrainian National Council, national-state building.

Література – 24

УДК 930.25:[004:327.8:351.75](470:4-15)”191/20”

ІСТОРІОГРАФІЧНИЙ АНАЛІЗ ПРОБЛЕМИ ІНФОРМАЦІЙНОЇ БЕЗПЕКИ НА ПОСТРАДЯНСЬКОМУ ПРОСТОРІ

О. Л. Гапеєва
Національна академія сухопутних
військ імені гетьмана Петра Сагайдачного

© Гапеєва О. Л., 2016

Проаналізовано науковий доробок сучасних українських та закордонних вчених у контексті дослідження різноманітних аспектів інформаційної безпеки. Виявлено, що студіювання інформаційної безпеки суспільства та особистості на пострадянському просторі розпочалось наприкінці 90-х років ХХ ст. В історичному аспекті окреслено проблематику розглянуто вперше.
Ключові слова: історіографія, інформаційна безпека, інформаційно-психологічний вплив, національна безпека, пострадянський простір.

The article analyzes the scientific works of modern Russian and foreign scientists in the context of studies of various aspects of information security. After the collapse of the USSR information security of the state, society and the individual became the subject of scientific research of political scientists, sociologists, jurists, philosophers, and experts in the information technology. But in historical perspective defined perspective is seen for the first time.
The author revealed the study of information-psychological security of the society and the individual in the post-Soviet area began in the late nineties of the last century scientists of the Russian Federation in the context of the study of national security of the state; in modern Russian historiography the issue is investigated, a large number of scientific papers.
But in a Ukrainian historiography the majority of the works have the legal, philosophical science and public administration, which allows to make a conclusion about the absence of comprehensive scientific research on issues of information security.
Key words: historiography, information security, information-psychological impact, national security, the post-Soviet space.

Література – 20

УДК 37:93/94-057.875

МУЗЕЙНА КОМУНІКАЦІЯ В УМОВАХ ВИКЛИКІВ ГЛОБАЛІЗАЦІЇ

П. В. Вербицька
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

© Вербицька П. В., 2016

Розглянуто проблему актуалізації ролі музейної комунікації в сучасному глобалізованому суспільстві. Виокремлено та узагальнено чинники, які визначають нові підходи й форми взаємодії музею із публікою, забезпечуючи широке впровадження сучасних інформаційно-комунікативних технологій, модернізацію змісту експозиції, розширення спектру й підвищення якості музейних послуг. З’ясовано потенціал впровадження комунікативного підходу в музеології й музейному проектуванні, що дає можливість застосовувати в практиці музею нові медіа та технології інтерпретації та сприйняття експозиції.
Ключові слова: музейна комунікація, музей, глобалізація, інформаційно-комунікативні технології, публіка.

The article deals with the problem of actualization the potential of the museum in a globalized society. Modern communication paradigm is considered in the context of providing the possibility of direct involvement of all participants to communication process. Modern social needs lead to social change of the museum mission towards effective cooperation with society. Communicative space of museum in modern conditions is characterized by availability and the possibility of cultural values transmission in the virtual space.
Based on modern scientific understanding of a museum role in contemporary social and cultural conditions, a new vision of museum communication is formulated. It is aiming at overcoming cultural and historical distance, establishing connections between the past, present and future, which lead to the revision of the museum traditional structure. The museum cannot be limited solely to passing scientific knowledge to its visitors. It is also necessary to consider motives and emotional requirements of the audience. By selecting the exhibits, extracting them from their cultural-historical environment, preserving and systematizing them, a museum becomes a specific channel of cultural-historical communication. Social value of a museum exhibit is determined by its historical-cultural context which shapes attitudes to the subject, as well as to a specific phenomenon or process associated with it.
Allocated and summarizes the factors that define new approaches and forms of interaction museum with the public, providing a broad introduction of modern information and communication technologies, modernization of content exposition, expanding the range and improving the quality of museum services.
It was found the potential of communicative approach implementation in museology and museum design, which makes it possible to introduce new technologies of interpretation and perception of exposition by individuals, introducing new media in the practice of the museum. New media and social networks form a wide range of museum communication instruments.
The vision of the museum as a social and cultural institution in modern conditions is complemented by understanding of its active role in social and cultural development of community. Exhibitions and other museum activities can become a tool for better understanding of today’s world and meet the needs of people at present.
Key words: mseum communication, museum, globalization, public, information and communicative technologies.

Література – 5

УДК 94(477)”1920/1939”

ДІЯЛЬНІСТЬ ГЕНЕРАЛІВ ВСЕВОЛОДА ПЕТРІВА
ТА МИХАЙЛА ОМЕЛЯНОВИЧА-ПАВЛЕНКА В ОРГАНІЗАЦІЇ НАЦІОНАЛЬНОЇ АРХІВНО-МУЗЕЙНОЇ СПРАВИ В ЕМІГРАЦІЇ

Р. П. Мельник, В. М. Мельник
Інститут гуманітарних та соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

© Мельник Р. П., Мельник В. М., 2016

Проаналізовано діяльність генералів армії УНР Всеволода Петріва та Михайла Омеляновича-Павленка в організації національної архівної справи в еміграції. Здійснено спробу показати на тлі політичних процесів міжвоєнного періоду діяльність представників військової еміграції зі створення музейних, книжкових та документальних колекцій, заснування архівних осередків у країнах осідку.
Ключові слова: архівно-музейна справа, еміграція, В. Петрів, М. Омелянович-Павленко, колекції.

The analysis of these sources and professional literature in the article attempts to highlight the theoretical views of the famous military leader, General cornet V. Petriw, plan on ordering and exhibiting documents and exhibits in the National Museum Archives at Hromadoznavstva Institute in Prague. Particular attention is focused on the problem of preserving the achievements of Ukrainian history and culture in exile. Thus, in Prague in 1923, the Institute was Hromadoznavstva shutter National Museum archive to preserve and protection of monuments of great historical value. In the operation of the museum’s archive, the urgent question was making clear structure methods for collecting and organizing documents and museum exhibits. To address this issue, on the initiative of the Director Museum Archives M. Galan, a commission was established, composed of V. Petriw entered. In the theoretical work, the military identified the main task of the main Ukrainian National Museum Archives, which was to organize the collection and storage of Ukrainian historical monuments abroad and completing his documentary collections, V. Petriw in his theoretical development plan submitted organize and exhibiting historical materials. The basis of the grouping of the collected sites, it is proposed to employ chronologically problematic principle that all accumulation of materials on the history of the national revolution of 1917–1921 had to be grouped according to time and their accessories. Another important area of work in the protection of the past defined the theoretical description and comparison of the accumulated separately and distributed material , the final step is to display in the museum. Diverse activities generals Peter B. and M. Pavlenko Omelianovych-on collection and storage of Ukrainian historical monuments abroad and acquisition of documentary collections clearly demonstrates their national position, not only in the military but of Interest in protecting the case in general.
Key words: archive and museum business, emigration, V. Petrov, M. Omelianovych-Pavlenko, collection.

Література – 11

УДК 902(477.83)

АРХЕОЛОГІЯ ЗАМЧИЩ ЗАХІДНОЇ УКРАЇНИ:
ІСТОРІЯ ТА ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ

С. В. Терський
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
Б. А. Омельчук
Інститут екології, природокористування та туризму
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

© Терський C. В., Омельчук Б. А., 2016

Проаналізовано процес археологічного дослідження замків та замчищ Прикарпаття та Волині. У Західних областях України та на Львівщині, зокрема на це звернено недостатню увагу, хоча зрідка реставраційні роботи в замках поєднані з розкопками. Обґрунтовано висновок про важливу роль археологічних матеріалів для з’ясування багатьох аспектів функціонування замків.
Ключові слова: археологічні знахідки, реставраційні роботи, замки, Львівщина, розкопки.

The article analyzes the process of archaeological research locks and locks’site Carpathians and Volyn. It was shown the growth of public interest in the preservation and restoration of castles of Western Ukraine. The modern typology attractions. Defined stages of the castle archaeology Ukraine.
It is established that XIV–XVI centuries. characteristic of the region are castles type “motte and bailey”. Since the end of the XVI century. become the dominant type of bastion castles. Today mapped locks Carpathians and Volyn conducted targeted saving research in the fortress of the district. Dniester and the castles of Transcarpathia (Nevytske, Hust).
The results of the study an important royal castle in sea level. Rakoczi Castle, defending the crossing over the river. Southern Bug 2.5 km east of the castle town Medzhybizh in the floodplain. Southern Bug.
Found that in Western Ukraine and Lviv region, including archaeological research of locks so far paid insufficient attention, although occasionally the restoration work in the castles are connected with the excavation. Today, much of medieval castles lost its ground and walls of their study lies entirely in the field of archaeology.
Examples detect collections of artifacts in the study of locks. These collections not only provide a more complete picture of the composition and origin of arms castle garrison, but most often the case with customs more fully characterize the trade. Grounded conclusion about the importance of archaeological materials to clarify many aspects of the locks.
Key words: archaeological, restoration work, castles, Lviv, excavations.

Література – 5

УДК 94(477)”1929/1939”(06) : 930.22

ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ ПРАЦІ ЧЛЕНІВ ОУН ЩОДО
ФОРМУВАННЯ УКРАЇНСЬКОЇ РЕГУЛЯРНОЇ АРМІЇ

С. О. Лісіна
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

 Лісіна С. О., 2016

Розкрито роботу військових діячів ОУН над творенням військової доктрини з формування регулярної армії Української держави 1929–1939 рр. Звернено увагу на характеристику основних праць М. Капустянського,
В. Курмановича, Р. Сушка щодо творення українського війська і воєнної доктрини. Представлено творчі здобутки військових діячів ОУН, які стали цінним внеском в організаційну та вишкільну діяльність Організації українських націоналістів міжвоєнного періоду.
Ключові слова: збройні формування, військово-організаційна діяльність, ОУН, військовий вишкіл, воєнна доктрина.

Case study of OUN military activities theory in the interwar period is complex, multifaceted and requires objective analysis of sources. The greatest interest to the characteristics of the main works of M. Kapustiansky V. Kurmanovich, R. Sushko, on the creation of Ukrainian army and military doctrine were fund of the Central State Archive of higher authorities and management of Ukraine, the State Archive of the L’viv Region. Archive of OUN within Olzhych Foundation in Kiev was useful in the study of correspondence material of E. Konovalets, M. Kapustiansky, M. Stsiborsky and others. Special attention is paid to the analysis of literary memoirs literature, nationalist newspapers and magazines, as well as fundamental monographs and dissertations.
Issue of creation the Ukrainian army always remained actual for the OUN, which stood on the position of Ukrainian statehood. OUN was involving the soldiers, who was the former ruler of the Ukrainian army, to their ranks, by bidding only on the armed liberation of Ukraine. Among those who participated in historical and theoretical researches were leaders of OUN, such as: E. Konovalets, M. Kapustiansky, V. Kurmanovich, R. Sushko, M. Kolodzinskyy, R. Shukhevych, A. Hasyn, Z. Kossak. Their rich experience of the First World War and the liberation fights of 1917–1921, good professional military education became a valuable contribution to the organization and educational activities of OUN during interwar period.
In the works: “Military knowledge”, ”On the question of Ukrainian military doctrine”, “For armed Ukraine”, “War and equipment”, “Ukrainian Armed Force and Ukrainian national revolution” M. Kapustiansky considered the future of the war and developed tactics and strategy of Ukrainian Nationalists. The main focus of military and historical studies for M. Kapustiansky, were problems of Ukrainian revolution, the history of the armed fight of the Ukrainian people for independence. There are a number of memoirs and analytical works among scientific and historical creative heritage of M. Kapustiansky: “Essays records years 1929–1939”, “On my memory screen,” “Remembered”. He, as eyewitness of the Ukrainian revolution, described past events at work “Campaign of Ukrainian army on the Kyiv-Odessa in 1919”.
General B. Kurmanovich, as experienced soldiers, actively participated in the creation of a textbook on military training for former officers of UHA. Thanks to the efforts Musketeers Communities was published a “Sketch textbook for Ukrainian officers and junior officers” in Canada, with a foreword by General V. Kurmanovich.
Roman Sushko took part in writing a textbook on military training, which is published in Paris. Important and interesting publications are documentary works of R. Sushko in the “Calendars Red Guelder Rose”. These works still not lost its scientific and cognitive value.
Creative achievements of OUN military leaders were feature with wide range and depth of thinking, high professionalism. All training and theoretical developments of OUN officers are the source for study of military and historical views on the nationalist organization activities in 1929–1939 years. This heritage can be used in developing process of modern Ukraine state building, reforming the armed forces, and perspective of entering the European structures and NATO.
Key words: armed groups, military and organizational activities, National Nations Organization, military training, military doctrine.

Література 23

УДК 725.1:656.2](477.87)

ОСОБЛИВОСТІ АРХІТЕКТУРИ
ЗАЛІЗНИЧНИХ ВОКЗАЛІВ ЗАКАРПАТТЯ

Ю. А. Рочняк
Інститут архітектури
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

© Рочняк Ю. А., 2016

Архітектурно-просторові та композиційно-стилістичні особливості формування залізничних вокзалів Закарпаття розглянуто на тлі історичних і територіальних передумов. Проводиться порівняння вокзалів та пасажирських будівель з іншою громадською та житловою забудовою.
Ключові слова: залізничний вокзал, пасажирська будівля, архітектурно-просторові, композиційно-стилістичних особливостей, Закарпаття.

The clear majority of railway stations and passenger facilities of Transcarpathia are historical, reasonably provide the needs of transportation and reflect interaction between different geographic, technical, temporal, political, stylistic, and other factors of their formation. They represent an important part of the architectural heritage of the region and therefore require professional study, protection and adjust to the needs of the recent time.
The architecture of the early period of railway station building links Transcarpathia of 1870th with royal and Hungarian influences at the time of the Habsburg monarchy; postwar architecture of the mid-twentieth century links with the totalitarian Soviet era and serial pavilion links it with passenger facilities of other parts of Ukraine.
Compositional and stylistic types of buildings create colorful palette and the most significant are railway stations performed on typical projects for the Royal Hungarian railways and the postwar Soviet classical railways. Typical for Transcarpathia are small-sized asymmetrical station building with declivous roofs, and sometimes with canopies or arched galleries. It is likely that they imitated the building of passenger station Karpaty/Carpathians built by the architectural motives of nearby located palace of former Count Schönborn of the turn of the ХІХ–ХХ centuries near Svalyava (now the sanatorium Karpaty). Part of the railway station buildings are unique and combined with some typical groups (Karpaty, Rakhiv, Uzhgorod, Yasinya).
Recent decades show fragmentarity of some passenger facilities and railway station buildings (Velykyi Bereznyj, Uzhgorod, Chop/Tchop), relatively good care of smaller and degradation of unharmed railway branches (Solotvyno – Velykyi Bychkiv, all the forest mountain narrow-gauge railways except part of Borzhava railway) and some passenger facilities (Dobrosillya). The selectivity in building and maintenance of the proper technical condition of railway stations and passenger facilities, providing service is biased – disrespect and indifference to the peripheral objects during costly characteristics of the ‘main’.
The existing railway infrastructure including railway stations and passenger facilities is a good precondition for more active railway communication through Galicia with most of the Ukraine, and with Slovakia, Hungary and Romania.
Investigated multinational empires of Transcarpathian railways should ensure both local and transit transportation and promote communication of people in the latest realities of Ukraine and rest of Europe. In this case, railway station buildings should keep the architectural identity of the region.
Key words: railway station, passenger building, architectural-spatial, compositional-stylistic properties, Transkarpathia.

Література – 17

УДК 94 (477/ 930.2)

ІСТОРІЯ СКЛА ПІД МІКРОСКОПОМ: З ЯКИХ РАКУРСІВ
ВАРТО ДОСЛІДЖУВАТИ ГУТНИЦТВО

Ю. М. Курдина
Інститут гуманітарних та соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

© Курдина Ю. М., 2016

Проаналізовано основні підходи, принципи та методи, використання яких дає змогу цілісно та всебічно досліджувати історію скла. На прикладі гутництва кінця XV – I половини XIX ст. продемонстровано необхідність використання системного, проблемно-хронологічного та, особливо, міждисциплінарного підходів для забезпечення максимум детального дослідження цього господарського заняття.
Ключові слова: гутництво, методи дослідження, міждисциплінарний підхід, археологія, скло.

The history of glass is multifaceted and full of mysteries. It is impossible, however, to study glass-making in all its complexity of manifestations by using only historical methods. By the example of Hutta production in the late XV – the 1st half of the XIX centuries the article shows the necessity to use a multidisciplinary approach in order to provide a maximum detailed research of the history of glass.
Hutta production as a multi-faceted phenomenon cannot be in the purview of history only. In particular, the basic materials according to which the reconstruction of Hutta production can be made are the results of archeological studies. This particularly includes structures of glass-melting furnaces and glassware. Generally, two categories of research activities are typical of archeology: study of material objects (formation of sources) and interpretation. The interrelation between these categories goes from collecting materials to their commenting. The determination of age of finds is also important because the tendency to making certain glass was specific to correspondent time periods and regions.
The issues of Hutta production is also closely related to another line of research – history of art. The fact is that the art styles affected not only architecture or sculpture but were also reflected in glassware decoration techniques. For example, a characteristic feature of Baroque glassware was a pedestal of the stem made in the form of a petal. The research methods in this case are based on the analysis of the works of art that is typical of the science dealing with plastic (spatial) arts.
The ethnographic studies confirm that even before the early XX century there existed a belief that a bear brings happiness into the house, it is no surprise, therefore, that the glassware in the form of a bear was particularly popular.
A “bottle-bear” was a necessary attribute of a village wedding in the XVIII century etc.
The application of methods and approaches of different sciences allows studying the history of glass under the microscope with different lenses.
Key words: hutta production, research methods, interdisciplinary approach, archeology, glass.

Література – 14

УДК 94(477.83-25=411.16):271-789.25-46”1942/1943”

ПЕРЕХОВУВАННЯ ЄВРЕЇВ МОНАХАМИ СТУДІЙСЬКОГО УСТАВУ НА ВЗУТТЄВІЙ ФАБРИЦІ “СОЛІД” У ЛЬВОВІ В 1942–1944 РР.

Ю. Скіра
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

© Скіра Ю., 2016

Описано переховування єврейських родин у підвалах взуттєвої фабрики “Солід” у Львові монахами Студійського Уставу протягом 1942–1944 рр. Викладено історію фабрики і її директора ієромонаха Йоана (Петерса). У другій частині висвітлено становище робітників у львівському гетто, працю євреїв-шевців та їхню втечу з сім’ями у серпні 1942 р. на запрошення студитів. Звернено увагу на питання побуту, небезпек перед якими постали ці люди. Він робить висновок, що переховування такої великої кількості осіб належало до однієї з найскладніших ділянок щодо рятункової акції євреїв, яку проводили монахи-студити за розпорядженням архімандрита Студійського Уставу митрополита Андрея Шептицького.
Ключові слова: євреї, монахи, фабрика, шевці, переховування, обшуки, гетто.

There are still a lot of unsettled questions in studying relations of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and the Jews during the Holocaust. The researchers mainly study the stance of the Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky and description of the fates of a certain number of Jews rescued by the clergy. The researchers, however, pay no attention to the facts of rescue of groups of Jews from Lviv Ghetto. There were several cases of such group rescues; this article reveals one of the biggest, as a result of which sixteen people were saved. This happened at the Solid shoe factory, whose director was a German person, Johannes Peters. He entered Univ Holy Dormition Monastery of the Studite Rite. Concealing from the German occupying authority the information about his priestly ordination, he lived secretly as a monk and at the same time remained a lay person on the position of the factory’s director. Knowing about the deaths of the Jews in Lviv Ghetto, he allowed the Studite monks employed by him to hide and shelter the Jewish families. These Jews were shoemakers who worked at the factory from the end of 1941. Monks could not abandon their colleagues, and, therefore, gave them a shelter. Throughout 1942–44 these people secretly worked and lived there. They faced searches and were reported to the police forces by their neighbours. Two Studite monks took care of them, while some lay persons of the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church were entrusted to bring meals for them. Hiding such a great number of people was one of the most difficult areas of the Jewish rescue campaign conducted by the Studites under the order of Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky, the Archimandrite of the Studite monks. Owing to their consolidated actions, a great self-devotion and courage they managed to save people who were deprived by the Nazis of the right to live.
Key words: Jews, monks, factory, shoemakers, hide, search, ghetto.

Література – 17

УДК 378.4:02:94(38)

ІНТЕРАКТИВНІ МЕТОДИКИ ТА ТЕХНІЧНІ ЗАСОБИ НАВЧАННЯ
НА ЗАНЯТТЯХ З ІСТОРІЇ ДАВНІХ ГРЕЦІЇ ТА РИМУ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТІВ СПЕЦІАЛЬНОСТІ “МУЗЕЄЗНАВСТВО, ПАМ’ЯТКОЗНАВСТВО”

Я. Б. Лисейко
Інститут гуманітарних і соціальних наук
Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”

 Лисейко Я. Б., 2016

Проаналізовано комплекс інтерактивних методик, застосованих під час занять з історії Давніх Греції та Риму для студентів спеціальності “Музеєзнавство, пам’яткознавство”, а також результати, яких вдалось досягти внаслідок їх впровадження у навчальному процесі.
Ключові слова: історія і культура Давніх Греції та Риму, інтерактивні методи, методика викладання.

Traditionally, there is a bias attitude towards interactive methods in high school of Ukraine. A substantial part of the teachers have a stereotype idea that these methods are more suitable for learning process in schools. This instrument is still new and poorly developed in domestic didactics of high school and rarely is used in practice. Nevertheless, interactive techniques serve as important mean of narrow subjects adaptation for a wider range of students with specialization only tangentially related to the study and mastery of course. The use of interactive teaching methods yielded positive results particularly in learning the history and culture of ancient Greece and Rome by students of “Museology and protection of cultural heritage” specialty.
Some classes were based entirely on interactive methods, the others were held with the use only of particular methods and some interactive elements. The method of discussion showed positive results among the set of proven techniques. Among the range of issues that were solved this way are following: “Athenian and Spartan models of social organization, “Rome during the flourishing era of the Republic and Golden Age of the Empire: the positive and negative aspects of both models of state organization”. In this case, the implementation of method of discussion provides interaction between students and teachers where they are equal, equivalent study subjects, students may defend their point of view, reflect on what they know and can explain. This provides freedom of participants in the learning process, increases the level of self–actualization and self–identity of the future expert. Meanwhile the teacher’s role during the discussion is to organize learning process, to be a consultant who never closes the educational process on himself/herself. Central point in learning process is the communication between students, their interaction and cooperation. The learning outcomes are achieved by mutual efforts of participants in the discussion.
During the classes on the history and culture of Ancient Greece and Rome was used the method of cases, chosen from the variety of teamwork methods. In particular, this method was implemented during the practical class with the subject “Ancient Greek society in the poems of Homer’s “Тhe Iliad” and “The Odyssey”. At the beginning of the lesson, students were divided into five teams, each team received a problematic task that required broader response. The work started with the method of “immersion” when the teacher offers to “dive” into the problem and highlight the main thing that should be expressed in the report. The task of each team member was to make some kind of argument in the general solution, to offer their own opinions and to find the necessary evidence from historical sources. Each team member has to “tell” and “demonstrate” to the reporter all important information on the subject of the report. After studying in groups, students move on to problem discussion. Students’ decisions necessarily have to be confirmed by the direct evidence of historical sources. The teams have been working on the issues of the following type: “Homeric question”: the problem of Iliad and Odyssey authorship and the place of Homer in Greek culture; The balance of historical facts and myths in Homer’s poems: what can the researcher use as historical information and what has to be considered with the critical attitude; Religious beliefs and the place of religion in the daily life of the ancient Greeks by Iliad and Odyssey poems; The level development of Greek civilization, culture and science by Iliad and Odyssey poems.
Each team had to submit a detailed report, that later was presented by speakers of each team. The teacher guides the work so that the speakers one by one perform the subject (up to 5 minutes per person), their speeches are completed by other group members (approximately 1 minute) and after that by students from other groups. The problem is discussed twice: within the group and the class. After the report presentation everyone was allowed to ask the team which prepared a solution questions, or to start a discussion on disputed issues. Then each group evaluates the work of teams.
The method of cases is distinguished by the high methodological level, since it contains a significant epistemological, axiological and praxeological potential. It allows acquiring considerable knowledge, to build professional skills of students and control over their acquiring, to mobilize and activate the role of teacher and student and to create conditions for spiritual and creative freedom of student. The democracy of this method meets demands of modern society and its values.
Interactive elements were present on the classes where students made presentations on the cultural history of ancient Greece or Rome, and were watching documentaries about the history of antiquity and then discussing them.
Interactive methods are more useful as means of repetition, generalization and systematization of knowledge control. They contribute to students’ conscious learning, the development of thinking, imagination, observation. As the course of history and culture of ancient Greece and Rome is presented at the first semester to the first year students, it provides not only a set of professional knowledge and skills needed to master this discipline, but in combination with the use of interactive methods helps to form applied competence of future professionals – communicational, social, intellectual and informational. Also it helps to form the basic competencies that enable students to acquire knowledge the most closely to professional practice. It is important that they save training time, the energy of teacher and students through the consolidation of educational information and accelerating pace. Thus, at such classes students learn how to study, master the work algorithm in high school, which they will practice during subsequent years of study.
Key words: history and culture of ancient Greece and Rome, interactive methods, methods of teaching.

Література – 13

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